The effect of emotional intelligence on turnover behaviors among call center employees

Main Article Content

Sanghee Kim
Sangeun Lee
JaeYoon Chang
HaeYoun Choi

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on turnover behaviors among call center employees. We investigated the relationship between EI and turnover behaviors during 190 days at two call centers located in Korea. Survival analyses revealed that EI significantly reduced turnover rate after controlling for the Big 5 personality traits. Specifically, most of the employees with low EI quit their jobs within the first 2 months while only half of the employees with high EI did. The importance of EI in the emotional labor settings and suggestions for the future research are discussed.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
 

Article Details

Section
Empirical Articles

References

김상희 (2006). 판매원의 정서지능과 탈진감 및 고객 지향적 판매행동의 관계에 관한 연구, 경영학연구, 35(1), 185-227.
노혜미, 유태용, 신강현 (2007). 정서지능과 정서노동 전략이 직무관련 태도에 미치는 영향: 개인적 성취감의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 20(4), 529-550.
박상언 (2015). 콜센터 상담직의 직무특성과 직무관련 정서 및 태도. 연세경영연구, 52(1), 21-54.
박영숙, 최수정, 정기주 (2015). 콜센터에서 상담사의 정서지능, 조직몰입, 친사회적 조직행동 간의 구조적 관계. 경영연구, 30(1), 155-196.
박재빈 (2007). 생존분석 이론과 실제. 서울: 신광출판사.
박종무, 박동수, 이재강, 안성익 (2014). 콜센터 상담사의 감정노동행동과 이직의도에 관한 실증적 연구: 직무성과의 조절효과. 경영컨설팅연구, 14(4), 173-186.
송경일, 최종수 (2008). SPSS 15를 이용한 생존자료의 분석. 서울: 한나래출판사.
유태용, 이기범, Ashton, M. (2004). 한국판 HEXACO 성격검사의 구성타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 18(3), 61- 75.
유태용, 김천석, 최명옥, 한지현, 송진섭 (2004). 성격과 정서지능의 구성개념간 관련성 및 변별성에 대한 탐색적 연구. 한국심리학회 학술대회 자료집, 1, 221-221.
윤시내, 이승륜 (2007). 항공사 콜센터 상담원의 감정노동이 소진에 미치는 영향. 관광경영연구, 30, 99-117.
이선희 (2008). 직무만족과 개인-직무 부합도가 청년근로자의 이직 결정에 미치는 영향: 사건사 분석법의 적용, 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 21(4), 705-728.
이수연, 양해술 (2008). 콜센터 근로자의 감정노동과 감정소진 및 이직의도의 관계에 대한 연구. 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 8(4), 197-210.
정기주, 최수정, 고은별 (2010). 고객센터에서 상담사의 정서지능이 고객지향성과 상담품질에 미치는 영향. 대한경영학회지, 23(4), 1759-1781.
정경숙, 최수정, 박명옥, 이 암 (2015). 콜센터에서 감정표현규범에 따른 상담사의 감정노동이 감정부조화, 감정소진, 이직의도에 미치는 영향. 대한경영학회지, 28(2), 529- 551.
주시각 (2013). 정서노동이 직무 스트레스, 직무소진, 이직의도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 콜센터 상담사를 중심으로. 한양대학교 대학원 박사학위 논문.
한지현, 유태용 (2005). 상사의 정서지능이 부하의 태도와 상사 과업수행에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 18(1), 177-199.
Allen, D. G., Weeks, K. P., & Moffitt, K. R. (2005). Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: The moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 980.
Ashkanasy, N. M., & Daus, C. S. (2005). Rumors of the death of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior are vastly exaggerated. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 441-452.
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18, 88-115.
Bakker, A., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. (2003). Dual processes at work in a call centre: An application of the job demands–resources model. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 12(4), 393-417.
Barak, M. E. M., Nissly, J. A., & Levin, A. (2001). Antecedents to retention and turnover among child welfare, social work, and other human service employees: What can we learn from past research? A review and metanalysis. Social Service Review, 75(4), 625-661.
Carsten, J. M., & Spector, P. E. (1987). Unemployment, job satisfaction, and employee turnover: A meta-analytic test of the Muchinsky model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 72, 374.
Chang, J. Y., Choi, J. N., & Kim, M. U. (2008). Turnover of highly educated R&D professionals: The role of pre‐entry cognitive style, work values and career orientation. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 81, 299-317.
Daus, C. S., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2005). The case for the ability‐based model of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 453-466.
Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: in search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015.
Glebbeek, A. C., & Bax, E. H. (2004). Is high employee turnover really harmful? An empirical test using company records. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 277-286.
Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, and F. Ostendorf(Eds.), Personality psychology in Europe, 7. Tilburg University Press: The Netherlands.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. Bantom Books, New York, NY.
Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 95-110.
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of Management, 26, 463-488.
Higgs, M. (2004). A study of the relationship between emotional intelligence and performance in UK call centres. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19, 442-454.
Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart. Berkeley. CA: University of California Press.
Jacobs, C., & Roodt, G. (2011). A human capital predictive model for agent performance in contact centres. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(1), 01-19.
Janovics, J., & Christiansen, N. D. (2002). Emotional intelligence in the workplace. Paper presented at the 16th Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA.
Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta- analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 54.
Kacmar, K. M., Andrews, M. C., Van Rooy, D. L., Steilberg, R. C., & Cerrone, S. (2006). Sure everyone can be replaced… but at what cost? Turnover as a predictor of unit-level performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 133-144.
Kafetsios, K., & Zampetakis, L. A. (2008). Emotional intelligence and job satisfaction: Testing the mediatory role of positive and negative affect at work. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(3), 712-722.
Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., & Straus, R. (2003). Emotional intelligence, personality, and the perceived quality of social relationships. Personality and individual Differences, 35(3), 641-658.
Law, K. S., Wong, C. S., & Song, L. J. (2004). The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(3), 483.
Lin, S. C., & Chang, J. N. (2005). Goal orientation and organizational commitment as explanatory factors of employees' mobility. Personnel Review, 34(3), 331-353.
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications (pp. 3-34). New York: Basic Books.
McCulloch, M. C., & Turban, D. B. (2007). Using Person–Organization Fit to Select Employees for High‐Turnover Jobs. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15(1), 63-71.
McElroy, J. C., Morrow, P. C., & Rude, S. N. (2001). Turnover and organizational performance: A comparative analysis of the effects of voluntary, involuntary, and reduction-in-force turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1294-1299.
Morrell, K. M., Loan-Clarke, J., & Wilkinson, A. J. (2004). Organisational change and employee turnover. Personnel Review, 33, 161-173.
Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21, 986-1010.
Morita, J. G., Lee, T. W., & Mowday, R. T. (1989). Introducing survival analysis to organizational researchers: A selected application to turnover research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(2), 280.
Morita, J. G., Lee, T. W., & Mowday, R. T. (1993). The regression-analog to survival analysis: A selected application to turnover research. Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), 1430-1464.
Nikolaou, I. & Tsaousis. I. (2002), Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploring its effects on occupational stress and organizational commitment, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10, 327-342.
Schalk, R., & Van Rijckevorsel, A. (2007). Factors influencing absenteeism and intention to leave in a call centre. New Technology, Work and Employment, 22(3), 260-274.
Shaw, J. D., Gupta, N., & Delery, J. E. (2005). Alternative conceptualizations of the relationship between voluntary turnover and organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 50-68.
Spencer, L. M., Jr., & Spencer, S. (1993). Competence at work: Models for superior performance. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Spencer, L. M. Jr., McClelland, D. C., & Kelner, S. (1997). Competency assessment methods: History and state of the art. Boston: Hay/McBer.
Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analyses based on meta‐analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.
Trevor, C. O., & Nyberg, A. J. (2008). Keeping your headcount when all about you are losing theirs: Downsizing, voluntary turnover rates, and the moderating role of HR practices. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 259-276.
Van der Zee, K., Thijs, M., & Schakel, L. (2002). The relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the Big Five. European Journal of Personality, 16, 103-125.
Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71-95.
Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 243-274.
Zhou, J. & George, J. M. (2003), Awakening employee creativity: The role of leader emotional intelligence, Leadership Quarterly, 14, 545-568.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>