The effect of isolation on job crafting in telecommuting Mediating effects of networking behavior and moderated mediating effects of affective commitment

Main Article Content

SuBin Lee
ChangGoo Heo

Abstract

The aims of this study was to identify what behavior of employees in order to overcome the isolation in the environment in which telecommuting was implemented. Specifically, this study was the networking behavior will appear as a positive coping method for the employees to overcome the isolation, and the mediating process that it will have a positive effect on job crafting through these behaviors is examined. Also want to identify the moderating effect according of affective commitment in this influence series of processes. For this purpose, an online survey was conducted on employees who are currently telecommuting from domestic companies and a total of 313 data were analyzed. The results of this study are as follows. First, professional isolation had a positive related on task networking behavior and social isolation had a positive related on friendship networking behavior. Second, the relationship between networking behavior and job crafting had all positively related. Third, the mediating effect of networking behavior was significant in the relationship between isolation and job crafting. Fourth, the moderating effect of affective commitment was significant only in the relationship between social isolation and friendship networking behavior. Fifth, the moderated mediating effect of affective commitment was significant only in the indirect effect of friendship networking behavior. Based on these findings, we expect to help to understand the emotions and behaviors of employees that may appear at the beginning of introduction of telecommuting in depth.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Lee, S., & Heo, C. (2021). The effect of isolation on job crafting in telecommuting: Mediating effects of networking behavior and moderated mediating effects of affective commitment. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 34(4), 663–696. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v34i4.663-696
Section
Empirical Articles

References

Adler, P. S., & Kwon, S. W. (2002). Social capital: Prospects for a new concept. Academy of Management Review, 27(1), 17-40.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2002.5922314

Ahn, J., & Lee, S. (2018). Conceptualization and validation of organizational commitment: Focused on full time workers of domestic banks in Korea. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 31(2), 459-497. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v31i2.459-497

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x

Ashforth, B. K., & Saks, A. M. (1996). Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 39(1), 149-178. https://doi.org/10.5465/256634

Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and weil‐being in two work settings1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(10), 2045-2068.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02690.x

Bailey, D. E., & Kurland, N. B. (2002). A review of telework research: Findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 383-400. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.144

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands–resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 273-285. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000056

Bartel, C. A., Wrzesniewski, A., & Wiesenfeld, B. M. (2012). Knowing where you stand: Physical isolation, perceived respect, and organizational identification among virtual employees. Organization Science, 23(3), 743-757. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1110.0661

Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., Bosch, J. A., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: The role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(11), 1459-1473. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167211413125

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachment as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497

Bentley, T. A., Teo, S. T. T., McLeod, L., Tan, F., Bosua, R., & Gloet, M. (2016). The role of organisational support in teleworker wellbeing: A socio-technical systems approach. Applied Ergonomics, 52, 207-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2015.07.019

Berg, J. M., Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2010). Perceiving and responding to challenges in job crafting at different ranks: When proactivity requires adaptivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2‐3), 158-186. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.645

Bizzi, L. (2017). Network characteristics: When an individual’s job crafting depends on the jobs of others. Human Relations, 70(4), 436-460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726716658963

Bovey, W. H., & Hede, A. (2001). Resistance to organisational change: The role of defence mechanisms. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 16(7), 534-548. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000006166

Brass, D. J., & Burkhardt, M. E. (1992). Centrality and power in organizations. In N. Nohria & R. Eccles (Eds.), Networks and organizations: Structure, forms and action (pp. 191-215). Harvard Business School Press. http://id.lib.harvard.edu/alma/990028257850203941/catalog

Burt, R. S., & Celotto, N. (1992). The network structure of management roles in a large matrix firm. Evaluation and Program Planning, 15(3), 303-326. https://doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189(92)90095-C

Chao, G. T., O'Leary-Kelly, A. M., Wolf, S., Klein, H. J., & Gardner, P. D. (1994). Organizational socialization: Its content and consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 730-743. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.5.730

Christensen, K. (1992). Managing invisible employees: How to meet the telecommuting challenge. Employment Relations Today, 19(2), 133-143. https://doi.org/10.1002/ert.3910190204

Chung, M. H., & Park, H. (2009). Social networks and job attitudes: Different effects of different networks in organizations. Korean Journal of Industrial Relations, 19(1), 37-64. https://www.dbpia.co.kr/journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE01455668

Cooper, C. D., & Kurland, N. B. (2002). Telecommuting, professional isolation, and employee development in public and private organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(4), 511-532. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.145

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 580-590. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.580

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., & Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2015). Productive and counterproductive job crafting: A daily diary study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 20(4), 457-469. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039002

Dierdorff, E. C., & Jensen, J. M. (2018). Crafting in context: Exploring when job crafting is dysfunctional for performance effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(5), 463-477. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000295

Diekema, D. A. (1992). Aloneness and social form. Symbolic Interaction, 15(4), 481-500. https://doi.org/10.1525/si.1992.15.4.481

Eby, L. T., Butts, M., & Lockwood, A. (2003). Predictors of success in the era of the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(6), 689-708. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.214

Feldman, D. C. (1981). The multiple socialization of organization members. Academy of Management Review, 6(2), 309-318. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1981.4287859

Feldman, D. C., & Gainey, T. W. (1997). Patterns of telecommuting and their consequences: Framing the research agenda. Human Resource Management Review, 7(4), 369-388. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(97)90025-5

Fitzer, M. M. (1997). Managing from afar: Performance and rewards in a telecommuting environment. Compensation & Benefits Review, 29(1), 65-73. https://doi.org/10.1177/088636879702900110

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151312

Forret, M. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (2001). Correlates of networking behavior for managerial and professional employees. Group & Organization Management, 26(3), 283-311. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601101263004

Friedkin, N. E. (1981). The development of structure in random networks: An analysis of the effects of increasing network density on five measures of structure. Social Networks, 3(1), 41-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8733(81)90004-6

Gajendran, R. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2007). The good, the bad, and the unknown about telecommuting: Meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1524-1541. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.6.1524

Ghitulescu, B. E. (2007). Shaping tasks and relationships at work: Examining the antecedents and consequences of employee job crafting. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Pittsburgh. http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/id/eprint/10312

Golden, T. D. (2006). The role of relationships in understanding telecommuter satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 319-340. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.369

Golden, T. D., Veiga, J. F., & Dino, R. N. (2008). The impact of professional isolation on teleworker job performance and turnover intentions: Does time spent teleworking, interacting face-to-face, or having access to communication-enhancing technology matter? Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1412-1421. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012722

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(76)90016-7

Harrington, S. J., & Santiago, J. (2006). Organizational culture and telecommuters' quality of work life and professional isolation. Communications of the IIMA, 6(3), 1-10. https://scholarworks.lib.csusb.edu/ciima/vol6/iss3/1

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Publications. ISBN: 978-1-60918-230-4

Hislop, D., Axtell, C., Collins, A., Daniels, K., Glover, J., & Niven, K. (2015). Variability in the use of mobile ICTs by homeworkers and its consequences for boundary management and social isolation. Information and Organization, 25(4), 222-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infoandorg.2015.10.001

Hochwarter, W. A., Witt, L. A., Treadway, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. (2006). The interaction of social skill and organizational support on job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 482-489. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.2.482

Ibarra, H. (1992). Homophily and differential returns: Sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37(3), 422-447. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393451

Ibarra, H. (1995). Race, opportunity, and diversity of social circles in managerial networks. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 673-703. https://doi.org/10.5465/256742

Ibarra, H., & Andrews, S. B. (1993). Power, social influence, and sense making: Effects of network centrality and proximity on employee perceptions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(2), 277-303. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393414

Iverson, R. D. (1996). Employee acceptance of organizational change: The role of organizational commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 7(1), 122-149. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585199600000121

Jaros, S. T., Jermier, J. M., Koehler, J. W., & Sincich, T. (1993). Effects of continuance, affective and moral commitment on the withdrawal process: An evaluation of eight structural equation models. Academy of Management Journal, 36(5), 951-995. https://doi.org/10.2307/256642

Jick. T. D., & Peiperl, M. A. (2003). Managing change: Cases and concepts. (2nd ed.), McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Jo, Y. M., & Lee, H. K. (2013). The relation between adult attachment and social anxiety: The mediation effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction and experiential avoidance. Korean Journal of Counseling, 14(2), 1227-1245. https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.14.2.201304.1227

Joiner, T. (2007). Why people die by suicide. Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674025493

Jones, C., Hesterly, W. S., & Borgatti, S. P. (1997). A general theory of network governance: Exchange conditions and social mechanisms. Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 911-945. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1997.9711022109

Jung, Y. J., & Kim, J. S. (2020). A study on the effects of home-based telecommuting environments and technostress to work productivity. Journal of Information Technology Applications & Management, 27(4), 63-83. https://doi.org/10.21219/jitam.2020.27.4.063

Kang, S. H., & Tak, J. (2014). The relationships between personal needs and subjective career success: Mediating effects of networking behaviors. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 27(1), 249-266. https://doi.org/10.24230/KSIOP.27.1.201402.249

Kim, J. J., & Park, K. (2008). A study on the relation between personal characteristics and psychological resistance to change & organization commitment. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 21(3), 429-450. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.21.3.200808.429

Kim, S., Pyo, D., Lee, J. S., Lee, J. G., Min, J., Shin, K., & Kim, K. (2015). A study of the validity of Korean versions of regulatory focus scale. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 29(3), 85-110. https://doi.org/10.21193/kjspp.2015.29.3.005

Kline, R. B. (2011). Convergence of structural equation modeling and multilevel modeling. In M. Williams & W. Paul Vogt (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of innovation in social research methods. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446268261.n31

Ko, J. W., & Lyou, C. (2006). The moderating effect of organizational commitment on the relationship between job stress and organizational citizenship behavior among hotel employees. Journal of Business Research, 21(3), 167-190. https://www.kci.go.kr/kciportal/ci/sereArticleSearch/ciSereArtiView.kci?sereArticleSearchBean.artiId=ART001127318

Kossek, E. E., Lautsch, B. A., & Eaton, S. C. (2006). Telecommuting, control, and boundary management: Correlates of policy use and practice, job control, and work–family effectiveness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(2), 347-367.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2005.07.002

Kurland, N. B., & Bailey, D. E. (1999). The advantages and challenges of working here, there, anywhere, and anytime. Organizational Dynamics, 28(2), 53-68.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616(00)80016-9

Kurland, N. B., & Cooper, C. D. (2002). Manager control and employee isolation in telecommuting environments. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 13(1), 107-126.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1047-8310(01)00051-7

Leana, C., Appelbaum, E., & Shevchuk, I. (2009). Work process and quality of care in early childhood education: The role of job crafting. Academy of Management Journal, 52(6), 1169-1192.https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.47084651

Lee, H. E. (2017). Development and initial validation of the Korean job crafting scale. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 18(10), 611-623.https://doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2017.18.10.611

Lee, S., & Jung, B. (2021). COVID-19 and the workplace environment: News analysis using news big data about the telecommuting. The Korean Journal of Human Resource Development Quarterly. 33(1), 145-175.https://www.doi.org/10.18211/kjhrdq.2021.23.1.006

Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: A theory of social structure and action. Cambridge University Press.https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815447

Madsen, S. R. (2003). The effects of home-based teleworking on work and family conflict. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14(1), 35-58. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1049

Mann, S., & Holdsworth, L. (2003). The psychological impact of teleworking: Stress, emotions and health. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18(3), 196-211.https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-005X.00121

McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., & Lowell, E. L. (1953). The achievement motive. Appleton-Century-Crofts.https://doi.org/10.1037/11144-000

Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6), 991-1007. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.991

Meyer, J. P., & Herscovitch, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace: Toward a general model. Human Resource Management Review, 11(3), 299-326.https://doi.org/10.1016/S1053-4822(00)00053-X

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842

Michael, J., & Yukl, G. (1993). Managerial level and subunit function as determinants of networking behavior in organizations. Group & Organization Management, 18(3), 328-351. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601193183005

Min, J. A. (2010). A study on the effect of organizational performance on the networking behavior and glass ceiling in the organization. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Sejong.http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T11920852

Ministry of Employment and Labor. (2020, September 24). Survey results report on the utilization of telecommuting. Jobplanet. http://www.moel.go.kr/news/enews/report/enewsView.do?news_seq=11450

Ministry of the Interior and Safety. (2010, July 26). Flexible working practices operation guidelines. https://www.mois.go.kr/frt/bbs/type010/commonSelectBoardArticle.do?bbsId=BBSMSTR_000000000008&nttId=27548

Mokhtarian, P. L., Salomon, I., & Choo, S. (2005). Measuring the measurable: Why can’t we agree on the number of telecommuters in the U.S.? Quality & Quantity, 39(4), 423-452. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-004-6790-z

Norton, P. J., & Hope, D. A. (2001). Analogue observational methods in the assessment of social functioning in adults. Psychological Assessment, 13(1), 59-72.https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.13.1.59

Oldham, G. R., & Hackman, J. R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2‐3), 463-479. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.678

Park, S. J., & Ryu, S. Y. (2017). Introducing the logic model of telework in government: Case of U.S. federal government. Journal of Social Science. 43(3), 107-132.http://doi.org/10.15820/khjss.2017.43.3.005

Pinder, C. C. (1984). Work motivation: Theory, issues, and applications. Scott Foresman & Company. ISBN: 0-673-15799-7

Pinsonneault, A., & Boisvert, M. (2001). The impacts of telecommuting on organizations and individuals: A review of the literature. In N. Johnson (Ed.), Telecommuting and virtual offices: Issues and opportunities (pp. 163-185). https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-878289-79-7.ch010

Podolny, J. M., & Baron, J. N. (1997). Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace. American Sociological Review, 62(5), 673-693. https://doi.org/10.2307/2657354

Pratt, J. H. (2000). Asking the right questions about telecommuting: Avoiding pitfalls in surveying homebased work. Transportation, 27(1), 99-116.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005288112292

Qi, J., Zhang, K., Fu, X., Zhao, X., & Wang, L. (2019). The effects of leader–member exchange, internal social capital, and thriving on job crafting. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 47(6), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.7981

Reeve, J. (2014). Understanding motivation and emotion. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 978-1-119-36760-4

Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Jang, H. (2008). Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self- determination theory perspective. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 223-244). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2008-03967-009

Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825-836.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.825

Robinson, O., & Griffiths, A. (2005). Coping with the stress of transformational change in a government department. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 41(2), 204-221.https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886304270336

Rockmann, K. W., & Pratt, M. G. (2015). Contagious offsite work and the lonely office: The unintended consequences of distributed work. Academy of Management Discoveries, 1(2), 150-164.https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2014.0016

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychological Association, 55(1), 68-78.http://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

Sandefur, R. L., & Laumann, E. O. (1998). A paradigm for social capital. Rationality and Society, 10(4), 481-501.https://doi.org/10.1177/104346398010004005

Sardeshmukh, S. R., Sharma, D., & Golden, T. D. (2012). Impact of telework on exhaustion and job engagement: A job demands and job resources model. New Technology, Work and Employment, 27(3), 193-207.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2012.00284.x

Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219-237. https://doi.org/10.5465/3069452

Seo, H. D. (2011). A study on networking behavior and career success: Focused on mediating effect of person-organization fit and person-job fit. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Ajou.http://dspace.ajou.ac.kr:9092/handle/2018.oak/18101

Tavares, A. I. (2017). Telework and health effects review. International Journal of Healthcare, 3(2), 30-36. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijh.v3n2p30

Teo, T. S., Lim, V. K., & Wai, S. H. (1998). An empirical study of attitudes towards teleworking among information technology (IT) personnel. International Journal of Information Management, 18(5), 329-343.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-4012(98)00023-1

Terry, D. J., & Jimmieson, N. L. (2003). A stress and coping approach to organisational change: Evidence from three field studies. Australian Psychologist, 38(2), 92-101.https://doi.org/10.1080/00050060310001707097

Tims, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36(2), 12-20.https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i2.841

Tims, M., Derks, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2016). Job crafting and its relationships with person–job fit and meaningfulness: A three-wave study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 92, 44-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2015.11.007

Toscano, F., & Zappalà, S. (2020). Social isolation and stress as predictors of productivity perception and remote work satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic: The role of concern about the virus in a moderated double mediation. Sustainability, 12(23), 9804.https://doi.org/10.3390/su12239804

Tugade, M. M., Fredrickson, B. L., & Barrett, L. F. (2004). Psychological resilience and positive emotional granularity: Examining the benefits of positive emotions on coping and health. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1161-1190. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00294.x

Vincenzi, H., & Grabosky, F. (1987). Measuring the emotional/social aspects of loneliness and isolation. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 2(2), 257-270.https://www.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/measuring-emotional-social-aspects-loneliness/docview/1292296557/se-2?accountid=27781

White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66(5), 297-333.https://doi.org/10.1037/h0040934

Witt, L. A., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). Social skill as moderator of the conscientiousness-performance relationship: Convergent results across four studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 809-820. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.809

Wolff, H. G., & Moser, K. (2009). Effects of networking on career success: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 196-206. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013350

Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 179-201.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2001.4378011

Yousef, D. A. (2000). Organizational commitment: A mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non‐western country. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1), 6-28.https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940010305270

Yu, J. P. (2012). 구조방정식모델 개념과 이해. Hannarae Publishing Co.

Most read articles by the same author(s)