Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day’s work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management review, 25(3), 472-491. https://doi.org/ 10.2307/259305
Baba, V. V., Jamal, M., & Tourigny, L. (1998). Work and mental health: A decade in Canadian research. Canadian Psychology/ Psychologie canadienne, 39(1-2), 94. https:// doi.org/10.1037/h0086798
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of managerial psychology, 22(3), 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940710733115
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Taris, T. W., Schaufeli, W. B., & Schreurs, P. J. (2003). A multigroup analysis of the job demands-resources model in four home care organizations. International Journal of stress management, 10(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1037/ 1072-5245.10.1.16
Bennett, A. A., Gabriel, A. S., Calderwood, C., Dahling, J. J., & Trougakos, J. P. (2016). Better together? Examining profiles of employee recovery experiences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(12), 1635. https:// doi.org/10.1037/apl0000157
Boswell, W. R., & Olson-Buchanan, J. B. (2007). The use of communication technologies after hours: The role of work attitudes and work-life conflict. Journal of Management, 33(4), 592-610. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0149206307302552
Brosschot, J. F., Gerin, W., & Thayer, J. F. (2006). The perseverative cognition hypothesis: A review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. Journal of psychosomatic research, 60(2), 113-124. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2005.06.074
Brosschot, J. F., Van Dijk, E., & Thayer, J. F. (2007). Daily worry is related to low heart rate variability during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period. International journal of psychophysiology, 63(1), 39-47. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2006.07.016
Carayannis, E. G., & Clark, S. C. (2011). Do smartphones make for smarter business? The smartphone CEO study. Journal of the knowledge economy, 2(2), 201. https:// doi.org/ 10.1007/s13132-011-0044-9
Chesley, N. (2005). Blurring boundaries? Linking technology use, spillover, individual distress, and family satisfaction. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(5), 1237-1248. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00213.x
Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human relations, 53(6), 747-770. https://doi.org/10. 1177/0018726700536001
Clarkson, J. J., Hirt, E. R., Jia, L., & Alexander, M. B. (2010). When perception is more than reality: the effects of perceived versus actual resource depletion on self-regulatory behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98(1), 29. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017539
Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of management review, 18(4), 621-656. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1993. 9402210153
Cropanzano, R., Rupp, D. E., & Byrne, Z. S. (2003). The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied psychology, 88(1), 160. https:// doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.160
Cropley, M., & Zijlstra, F. R. (2011). Work and rumination. Handbook of stress in the occupations, 487-503. https://doi.org/10.4337/ 9780857931153.00061
Cropley, M., Michalianou, G., Pravettoni, G., & Millward, L. J. (2012). The relation of post work ruminative thinking with eating behaviour. Stress and Health, 28(1), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1397
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands- resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied psychology, 86(3), 499. https://doi.org/10.1037// 0021-9010.86.3.499
Derks, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2014). Smartphone use, work-home interference, and burnout: A diary study on the role of recovery. Journal of applied Psychology, 63(3), 411-440. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2012.00530.x
Derks, D., Bakker, A. B., Peters, P., & van Wingerden, P. (2016). Work-related smartphone use, work-family conflict and family role performance: The role of segmentation preference. Human Relations, 69(5), 1045-1068. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0018726715601890
Derks, D., ten Brummelhuis, L. L., Zecic, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2014). Switching on and off…: Does smartphone use obstruct the possibility to engage in recovery activities?. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 80-90. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/1359432x.2012.711013
Derks, D., van Duin, D., Tims, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2015). Smartphone use and work–home interference: The moderating role of social norms and employee work engagement. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(1), 155-177. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop. 12083
Derks, D., van Mierlo, H., & Schmitz, E. B. (2014). A diary study on work-related smartphone use, psychological detachment and exhaustion: Examining the role of the perceived segmentation norm. Journal of occupational health psychology, 19(1), 74. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035076
Duxbury, L., Higgins, C., Smart, R., & Stevenson, M. (2014). Mobile technology and boundary permeability. British Journal of Management, 25(3), 570-588. https://doi.org/10.1111/ 1467- 8551.12027
Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (1999). Work and family stress and well-being: An examination of person-environment fit in the work and family domains. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 77(2), 85-129. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1998.2813
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980
Fulk, J., Schmitz, J. A., & Schwarz, D. (1992). The dynamics of context-behaviour interactions in computer-mediated communication. In M. Lea (Ed.), Contexts of computer-mediated communication, 7-29.
Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational behavior, 26(4), 331-362. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.322
Green, N. (2002). On the move: Technology, mobility, and the mediation of social time and space. The information society, 18(4), 281-292. https://doi.org/10.1080/019722402 90075129
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & William, C. (1998). Black (1998), Multivariate data analysis.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
Hopstaken, J. F., Van Der Linden, D., Bakker, A. B., & Kompier, M. A. (2015). A multifaceted investigation of the link between mental fatigue and task disengagement. Psychophysiology, 52(3), 305-315. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/psyp.12339
Ilies, R., Wilson, K. S., & Wagner, D. T. (2009). The spillover of daily job satisfaction onto employees’ family lives: The facilitating role of work-family integration. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 87-102. https://doi.org/10.5465 /amj.2009.36461938
Jeun, H. & Son, C. (2012). The Mediating Role of Mindfulness and Anger Rumination in the Relation between Stress and Dysfunctional Anger. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31(4), 907-922. https://doi.org/10.15842/kjcp. 2012.31.4.003
Kahneman, D., & Frederick, S. (2002). Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment, 49, 81. https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511 808098.004
Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, 1(2), 75-130.
Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Sianoja, M., de Bloom, J., Korpela, K., & Geurts, S. (2017). Identifying long-term patterns of work-related rumination: Associations with job demands and well-being outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(4), 514-526. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432x. 2017.1314265
Kossek, E. E., Ruderman, M. N., Braddy, P. W., & Hannum, K. M. (2012). Work-nonwork boundary management profiles: A person- centered approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(1), 112-128. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jvb.2012.04.003
Kreiner, G. E. (2006). Consequences of work-home segmentation or integration: A person environment fit perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 485-507. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.386
Lau, R. S., & Cheung, G. W. (2010). Estimating and comparing specific mediation effects in complex latent variable models. Organizational Research Methods, 11(2), 3-16. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/1094428110391673
Lazarus, R. S. & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
Lee, K., Park, T., & Lim, J. (2011). A Study on Roles of CERT and ISAC for enhancing the Security of Smart Mobile Office. Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security & Cryptology, 21(5), 109-127.
Lee, K. (2016). Smart device usage and laborer’s life. Labor Review, 131. pp. 1-2. Sejong: Korea Labor Institute. https://www.kli.re.kr/kli/ pdicalView.do?key=19&pblctListNo=8678&schPdicalKnd=%EB%85%B8%EB%8F%99%EB%A6%AC%EB%B7%B0&schPblcateDe=&pageUnit=10&searchCnd=all&searchKrwd=&pageIndex=4
Lee, K., & Kim, K. (2015). The Effect of Smart Device Usage on Workers’ Work and Life. KLI Employment and Labor Brief. 62. https://www.kli.re.kr/downloadPblFile.do?atchmnflNo=19675
Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1993). A further examination of managerial burnout: Toward an integrated model. Journal of organizational behavior, 14(1), 3-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/ job.4030140103
Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of applied Psychology, 81(2), 123. https://doi.org/ 10.1037//0021-9010.81.2.123
Leiter, M. P., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research. Psychology press. https://doi.org/ 10.4324/9780203853047
Lyubomirsky, S., Tucker, K. L., Caldwell, N. D., & Berg, K. (1999). Why ruminators are poor problem solvers: Clues from the phenomenology of dysphoric rumination. Journal of personality and social psychology, 77(5), 1041-1060. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514. 77.5.1041
Markus, M. L. (1994). Electronic mail as the medium of managerial choice. Organization science, 5(4), 502-527. https://doi.org/10.1287/ orsc.5.4.502
Maslach, C. (1978). The client role in staff burnout. Journal of social issues, 34(4), 111-124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1978.tb00778.x
Matusik, S. F., & Mickel, A. E. (2011). Embracing or embattled by converged mobile devices? Users’ experiences with a contemporary connectivity technology. Human Relations, 64(8), 1001-1030. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0018726711405552
Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In Handbook of work and organizational psychology. Vol. 2: Work psychology (pp. 5-33). Psychology, Hove, England.
Milliken, F. J., & Dunn-Jensen, L. M. (2005). The Changing Time Demands of Managerial and Professional Work: Implications for Managing the Work-Life Boundary. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Nippert-Eng, C. (1996). Calendars and keys: The classification of “home” and “work”. Sociological Forum, 11(3), 563-582. https://doi.org/10.1007/ bf02408393
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., McBride, A., & Larson, J. (1997). Rumination and psychological distress among bereaved partners. Journal of personality and social psychology, 72(4), 855. https://doi. org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1245
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on psychological science, 3(5), 400-424. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x
Ohly, S., & Latour, A. (2014). Work-related smartphone use and well-being in the evening. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 13, 174-183. https://doi.org/10.1027/1866-5888/a000114
Orlikowski, W. J. (1992). The duality of technology: Rethinking the concept of technology in organizations. Organization science, 3(3), 398-427. https://doi.org/10.1027/1866- 5888/a000114
Orlikowski, W. J. (2000). Using technology and constituting structures: A practice lens for studying technology in organizations. Organization science, 11(4), 404-428. https:// doi.org/10.1287/orsc.11.4.404.14600
Park, Y., Lee, J., & Lee, Y. (2014). A Study on Job Satisfaction of Smart Work Worker and Smart Work Continued Usage. The Journal of Society for e-Business Studies, 19(3), 23-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.7838/jsebs. 2014.19.3.023
Pieper, S., & Brosschot, J. F. (2005). Prolonged stress-related cardiovascular activation: is there any?. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 30(2), 91-103. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324796abm 3002_1
Pitichat, T. (2013). Smartphones in the workplace: Changing organizational behavior, transforming the future. LUX: A Journal of Transdisciplinary Writing and Research from Claremont Graduate University, 3(1), 13. https://doi.org/10.5642/ lux.201303.13
Pravettoni, G., Cropley, M., Leotta, S. N., & Bagnara, S. (2007). The differential role of mental rumination among industrial and knowledge workers. Ergonomics, 50(11), 1931-1940. https://doi.org/10.1080/001401307 01676088
Querstret, D., Cropley, M., Kruger, P., & Heron, R. (2016). Assessing the effect of a Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)-based workshop on work-related rumination, fatigue, and sleep. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(1), 50-67. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/1359432x.2015.1015516
Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of management journal, 53(3), 617-635. https:// doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.51468988
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2003). Utrecht work engagement scale: Preliminary manual. Occupational Health Psychology Unit, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 26.
Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996) The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Test Manual (3rd edn). Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA.
Schaufeli, WB, Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, AB (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92. https:// doi.org/10.1023/a:1015630930326
Segerstrom, S. C., Stanton, A. L., Alden, L. E., & Shortridge, B. E. (2003). A multidimensional structure for repetitive thought: What’s on your mind, and how, and how much?. Journal of personality and social psychology, 85(5), 909. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1999
Shin, K. (2003). The Maslach Bunout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS): An Application In South Korea. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 16(3), 1-17.
Shirom, A. (1989). Burnout in work organizations. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 25-48.
Smit, B. W., & Barber, L. K. (2016). Psychologically detaching despite high workloads: The role of attentional processes. Journal of occupational health psychology, 21(4), 432. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000019
Suh, A. (2012). Factors Affecting Individuals’ Job Satisfaction in Smartwork Environments. The e-Business Studies, 13(3), 427-459. https:// doi.org/10.15719/geba.13.3.201209.427
Syrek, C. J., & Antoni, C. H. (2014). Unfinished tasks foster rumination and impair sleeping- Particularly if leaders have high performance expectations. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4), 490. https://doi.org/10.1037/ a0037127
Syrek, C. J., Weigelt, O., Peifer, C., & Antoni, C. H. (2017). Zeigarnik’s sleepless nights: How unfinished tasks at the end of the week impair employee sleep on the weekend through rumination. Journal of occupational health psychology, 22(2), 225. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/ocp0000031
Towers, I., Duxbury, L., Higgins, C., & Thomas, J. (2006). Time thieves and space invaders: Technology, work and the organization. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19(5), 593-618. https://doi.org/10.1108/09534 810610686076
Van Der Linden, D., Frese, M., & Sonnentag, S. (2003). The impact of mental fatigue on exploration in a complex computer task: Rigidity and loss of systematic strategies. Human Factors, 45(3), 483-494. https://doi. org/10.1518/hfes.45.3.483.27256
Van Hooff, M. L., Geurts, S. A., Kompier, M. A., & Taris, T. W. (2006). Work-home interference: How does it manifest itself from day to day?. Work & Stress, 20(2), 145-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370600915940
Verkuil, B., Brosschot, J. F., Gebhardt, W. A., & Thayer, J. F. (2010). When worries make you sick: a review of perseverative cognition, the default stress response and somatic health. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 1(1), jep-009110. https://doi.org/10.5127/jep.009110
Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (1997). The contribution of burnout to work performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(5), 491-499. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099- 1379(199709)18:5<491::aid-job804>3.0.co;2-i
Zohar, D. (1997). Predicting burnout with a hassle based measure of role demands. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(2), 101-115. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1379(199703)18:2<101::aid-job788>3.0.co;2-y
- Abstract viewed - 221 times
- PDF downloaded - 192 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
© Korean Journal for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2019
Daegu Catholic University
Daegu Catholic University
How to Cite
The effect of smartphone use during off-job time on emotional exhaustion and job engagement
Mediating effect of work-related rumination and moderating effect of segmentation preference
Vol 32 No 2 (2019): Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Submitted: May 31, 2019
Published: May 31, 2019
The aim of this study was to identify the psychological mechanism between smartphone use during off-job time (smartphone use) and job attitudes (emotional exhaustion, job engagement). For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted for 381 employees. The results of this study showed that smartphone use had a positive indirect effect on emotional exhaustion through emotional rumination and had a positive indirect effect on job engagement through problem-solving pondering. And the indirect effects of emotional rumination were relatively strong. In addition, the indirect effect of emotional rumination was found to increase more as the segmentation preference of the worker increased. Considering the work environment in which the segmentation preference of the worker is expected to increase as work-life balance is emphasized gradually, the effect of smartphone use through emotional ruminations on emotional exhaustion or job engagement will be increase. Based on these results, the implications of the study were discussed and future research directions were suggested.