The effects of supervisor and team on suggestion behaviors of workers in manufacturing setting Performance management efficacy and coaching through individual and team processes

Main Article Content

Juyoung Han
TaeYoung Han


The suggestion behavior of blue-collar workers is a voluntary action that may contribute to organizational effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual and team level processes of suggestion behavior in relation to the performance management context. At the individual level, we examined the effect of supervisor's performance coaching through workers' justice perception toward performance management. At the team level, the study investigated the effect of supervisor' performance management efficacy as a team factor to the extent to which team-member exchange (TMX) mediates at the team-level on suggestion behavior. To test the research model, data from 138 skilled engineers were collected in 36 teams of working for an automobile manufacturer. The results showed that performance management justice perception fully mediated between performance coaching and suggestion behavior, and TMX at the team level also had a full mediation effect between performance management efficacy and suggestion behavior. Further verification of alternative models has shown that the research model is more compelling. The study identified the effects of immediate superiors and colleagues that were overlooked in the previous study and found that it was necessary to manage the working environment rather than the institutional elements to facilitate the suggestion behavior of field workers. Based on this, the implications, limitations, and future research tasks were presented.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Han, J., & Han, T. (2020). The effects of supervisor and team on suggestion behaviors of workers in manufacturing setting: Performance management efficacy and coaching through individual and team processes. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 33(1), 35–59.
Empirical Articles
Author Biography

TaeYoung Han, Kwangwoon University

Industrial Psychology Department, Professor

Funding data


Bae, K. S., Kwon, H. J., & Nho, Y. J. (2008). A study of mid- and long-term development strategy for workplace innovation. Korea Labor Institute.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Bernardin, H. J., & Villanova, P. (2005). Research streams in rater self-efficacy. Group & Organization Management, 30(1), 61-88.

Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349-381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.

Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. M. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Personnel Selection in Organizations (pp. 71-98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM–firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 203-221.

Buech, V. I. D., Michel, A., & Sonntag, K. (2010). Suggestion systems in organizations: what motivates employees to submit suggestions? European Journal of Innovation Management, 13(4), 507-525.

Burdett, J. O. (1991). To coach, or not to coach – that is the question! Part 1. Industrial and Commercial Training, 23(5).

Cardy, R. L., & Dobbins, G. H. (1994). Performance appraisal: The influence of liking on cognition. In J. F. Porac, J. R. Meindl, & C. Stubbart (Eds.), Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organizational Information Processing, 5, 115-140. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Choi, Y. D., & Lee, D. S. (2017). Review and conceptual analysis of employee voice behavior. Korean Academy of Management, 25(2), 129-157.

Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278-321.

Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425-445.

DeNisi, A. S., & Kluger, A. N. (2000). Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved? Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 129-139.

Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869-884.

Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461-488.

Erdogan, B. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in performance appraisals. Human Resource Management Review, 12(4), 555-578.

Fairbank, J., Spangler, W., & Williams, S. D. (2003). Motivating creativity through a computer-mediated employee suggestion management system. Behavior & Information Technology, 22(5), 305-314.

Farh, C. I. C., & Chen, G. (2018). Leadership and member voice in action teams: Test of a dynamic phase model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(1), 97-110.

Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 32(1), 115-130.

Ford, C. M. (1996). A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains, Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 1112-1142.

Frese, M., Teng, E., & Wijnen, C. J. (1999). Helping to improve suggestion systems: Predictors of making suggestions in companies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1139-1155.<1139::aid-job946>;2-i

Gillespie, N. A., & Mann, L. (2004). Transformational leadership and shared values: The building blocks of trust. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6), 588-607.

Greenberg, J. (1986). Determinants of perceived fairness of performance evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 340-342.

Hackman, J. R., & Wageman, R. (2005). A theory of team coaching. Academy of Management Review, 30(2), 269-287.

Hadi, M., Sajjadi, H., Baratpour, S., & Toghiani, A. (2013). Performance evaluation of the suggestion system. Medical Archives, 67(2), 131-133.

Hall, D. T., Otazo, K. L., & Hollenbeck, G. P. (1999). Behind closed doors: What really happens in executive coaching. Organizational Dynamics, 27(3), 39-53.

Han, T. Y. (2010). An investigation of the construct of performance evaluation system effectiveness from the evaluatee’s perspective and its measurement tool. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23(2), 365-394.

Heslin, P. A., Vandewalle, D., & Latham, G. P. (2006). Keen to help? Managers’ implicit person theories and their subsequent employee coaching. Personnel Psychology, 59(4), 871-902.

Hedge, J. W., & Borman, W. C. (1995). Changing conceptions and practices in performance appraisal. In A. Howard (Ed.), The Changing Nature of Work, 451-481. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard university press.

Hu, X., Kaplan, S., & Dalal, R. S. (2010). An examination of blue-versus white-collar workers’ conceptualizations of job satisfaction facets. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(2), 317-325.

Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. (1997). The effects of human resource practices on manufacturing performance: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87(3), 291-313.

Kanfer, R., Chen, G., & Pritchard, R. D. (2012). Work motivation: Past, present and future. In W. R. Boswell, A. J. S. Colvin, & T. C. Darnold (Eds.), Organizational Systems and Employee Motivation (pp. 361-400). Routledge.

Kavanagh, P., Benson, J., & Brown, M. (2007). Understanding performance appraisal fairness. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 45(2), 132-150.

Keeping, L. M., & Levy, P. E. (2000). Performance appraisal reactions: Measurement, modeling, and method bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 708-723.

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254-284.

Korsgaard, M. A., & Roberson, L. (1995). Procedural justice in performance evaluation: The role of instrumental and non-instrumental voice in performance appraisal discussions. Journal of Management, 21(4), 657-669.

Konovsky, M. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1991). Perceived fairness of employee drug testing as a predictor of employee attitudes and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5), 698-707.

LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 853-868.

Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrow, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 407-416.

Lind, E. A. (2001). Fairness heuristic theory: Justice judgements as pivotal cognitions in organizational relations. ln J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in organizational justice, 56-88. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Lind, E. A., Kray, L., & Thompson, L. (2001). Primacy effects in justice judgments: Testing predictions from fairness heuristic theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(2), 189-210.

Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J.-L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71-92.

Liu, X., & Batt, R. (2010). How supervisors influence performance: A multilevel study of coaching and group management in technology-mediated services. Personnel Psychology, 63(2), 265-298.

Mathieu, J. E., & Taylor, S. R. (2007). A framework for testing meso-mediational relationships in Organizational Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(2), 141-172.

Maynes, T. D., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2014). Speaking more broadly: An examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 87-112.

Murphy, K. R., & Cleveland, J. (1995). Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, and goal-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373-412.

Morrison, E. W., Wheeler-Smith, S. L., & Kamdar, D. (2011). Speaking up in groups: A cross-level study of group voice climate and voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 183-191.

Oh, H. J., & Chung, M. H. (2014). Employee voice behavior: exploring antecedents and examining the moderating effects of group conflicts. Korean Academy of Management, 22(4), 35-70.

Pinder, C. C., & Harlos, K. P. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 20, 331-369. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Purcell, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2007). Front-line managers as agents in the HRM-performance causal chain: Theory, analysis and evidence. Human Resource Management Journal, 17(1), 3-20.

Rico, R., Molleman, E., Sánchez-Manzanares, M., & Van der Vegt, G. S. (2007). The Effects of Diversity Faultlines and Team Task Autonomy on Decision Quality and Social Integration. Journal of Management, 33(1), 111-132.

Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599-627.

Seers, A. (1989). Team-member exchange quality: A new construct for role-making research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43(1), 118-135.

Seers, A., Petty, M. M., & Cashman, J. F. (1995). Team-member exchange under team and traditional management: A naturally occurring quasi-experiment. Group & Organization Management, 20(1), 18-38.

Slocum Jr, J. W., & Sims Jr, H. P. (1980). A typology for integrating technology, organization, and job design. Human Relations, 33(3), 193-212.

Smither, J. W., & London, M. (2009). Performance management: putting research into action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Steelman, L. A., Levy, P. E., & Snell, A. F. (2004). The feedback environment scale: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(1), 165–184.

Tak, J. K., & Cho, E. H. (2011). Development and validity of the coaching leadership scale. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(1), 127-155.

Takeuchi, R., Chen, Z., & Cheung, S. Y. (2012). Applying uncertainty management theory to employee voice behavior: An integrative investigation. Personnel Psychology, 65(2), 283-323.

Tucker, S., Chmiel, N., Turner, N., Hershcovis, M. S., & Stride, C. B. (2008). Perceived organizational support for safety and employee safety voice: The mediating role of coworker support for safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 319-330.

van Dijk, C., & van den Ende, J. (2002). Suggestion systems: Transferring employee creativity into practicable ideas. R&D Management, 32(5), 387-395.

Walumbwa, F. O., & Schaubroeck, J. (2009). Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1275-1286.

Wood, R. E., & Marshall, V. (2008). Accuracy and effectiveness in appraisal outcomes: The influence of self-efficacy, personal factors and organisational variables. Human Resource Management Journal, 18(3), 295-313.

Yukl, G. A., & Becker, W. S. (2006). Effective empowerment in organizations. Organization Management Journal, 3(3), 210-231.

Most read articles by the same author(s)