Main Article Content
The suggestion behavior of blue-collar workers is a voluntary action that may contribute to organizational effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the individual and team level processes of suggestion behavior in relation to the performance management context. At the individual level, we examined the effect of supervisor's performance coaching through workers' justice perception toward performance management. At the team level, the study investigated the effect of supervisor' performance management efficacy as a team factor to the extent to which team-member exchange (TMX) mediates at the team-level on suggestion behavior. To test the research model, data from 138 skilled engineers were collected in 36 teams of working for an automobile manufacturer. The results showed that performance management justice perception fully mediated between performance coaching and suggestion behavior, and TMX at the team level also had a full mediation effect between performance management efficacy and suggestion behavior. Further verification of alternative models has shown that the research model is more compelling. The study identified the effects of immediate superiors and colleagues that were overlooked in the previous study and found that it was necessary to manage the working environment rather than the institutional elements to facilitate the suggestion behavior of field workers. Based on this, the implications, limitations, and future research tasks were presented.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2063
Bernardin, H. J., & Villanova, P. (2005). Research streams in rater self-efficacy. Group & Organization Management, 30(1), 61-88. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601104267675
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349-381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.
Borman, W. C., & Motowidlo, S. M. (1993). Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance. Personnel Selection in Organizations (pp. 71-98). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM–firm performance linkages: The role of the “strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review, 29(2), 203-221. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2004.12736076
Buech, V. I. D., Michel, A., & Sonntag, K. (2010). Suggestion systems in organizations: what motivates employees to submit suggestions? European Journal of Innovation Management, 13(4), 507-525. https://doi.org/10.1108/14601061011086311
Burdett, J. O. (1991). To coach, or not to coach – that is the question! Part 1. Industrial and Commercial Training, 23(5). https://doi.org/10.1108/00197859110136171
Cardy, R. L., & Dobbins, G. H. (1994). Performance appraisal: The influence of liking on cognition. In J. F. Porac, J. R. Meindl, & C. Stubbart (Eds.), Advances in Managerial Cognition and Organizational Information Processing, 5, 115-140. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Choi, Y. D., & Lee, D. S. (2017). Review and conceptual analysis of employee voice behavior. Korean Academy of Management, 25(2), 129-157. https://bit.ly/2NM65ji
Cohen-Charash, Y., & Spector, P. E. (2001). The role of justice in organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2), 278-321. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2001.2958
Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O. L. H., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425-445. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.425
DeNisi, A. S., & Kluger, A. N. (2000). Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved? Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 129-139. https://doi.org/10.5465/ame.2000.2909845
Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership behavior and employee voice: Is the door really open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869-884. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.26279183
Detert, J. R., & Edmondson, A. C. (2011). Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal, 54(3), 461-488. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.61967925
Erdogan, B. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of justice perceptions in performance appraisals. Human Resource Management Review, 12(4), 555-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1053-4822(02)00070-0
Fairbank, J., Spangler, W., & Williams, S. D. (2003). Motivating creativity through a computer-mediated employee suggestion management system. Behavior & Information Technology, 22(5), 305-314. https://doi.org/10.1080/01449290310001593630
Farh, C. I. C., & Chen, G. (2018). Leadership and member voice in action teams: Test of a dynamic phase model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(1), 97-110. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000256
Folger, R., & Konovsky, M. A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 32(1), 115-130. https://doi.org/10.2307/256422
Ford, C. M. (1996). A theory of individual creative action in multiple social domains, Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 1112-1142. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1996.9704071865
Frese, M., Teng, E., & Wijnen, C. J. (1999). Helping to improve suggestion systems: Predictors of making suggestions in companies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1139-1155. https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1379(199912)20:7<1139::aid-job946>3.0.co;2-i
Gillespie, N. A., & Mann, L. (2004). Transformational leadership and shared values: The building blocks of trust. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(6), 588-607. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940410551507
Greenberg, J. (1986). Determinants of perceived fairness of performance evaluations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 340-342. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.2.340
Hackman, J. R., & Wageman, R. (2005). A theory of team coaching. Academy of Management Review, 30(2), 269-287. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2005.16387885
Hadi, M., Sajjadi, H., Baratpour, S., & Toghiani, A. (2013). Performance evaluation of the suggestion system. Medical Archives, 67(2), 131-133. https://doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2013.67.131-133
Hall, D. T., Otazo, K. L., & Hollenbeck, G. P. (1999). Behind closed doors: What really happens in executive coaching. Organizational Dynamics, 27(3), 39-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0090-2616(99)90020-7
Han, T. Y. (2010). An investigation of the construct of performance evaluation system effectiveness from the evaluatee’s perspective and its measurement tool. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23(2), 365-394.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.23.2.201005.365
Heslin, P. A., Vandewalle, D., & Latham, G. P. (2006). Keen to help? Managers’ implicit person theories and their subsequent employee coaching. Personnel Psychology, 59(4), 871-902. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00057.x
Hedge, J. W., & Borman, W. C. (1995). Changing conceptions and practices in performance appraisal. In A. Howard (Ed.), The Changing Nature of Work, 451-481. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard university press.
Hu, X., Kaplan, S., & Dalal, R. S. (2010). An examination of blue-versus white-collar workers’ conceptualizations of job satisfaction facets. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(2), 317-325. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.10.014
Ichniowski, C., Shaw, K., & Prennushi, G. (1997). The effects of human resource practices on manufacturing performance: A study of steel finishing lines. American Economic Review, 87(3), 291-313. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2951347
Kanfer, R., Chen, G., & Pritchard, R. D. (2012). Work motivation: Past, present and future. In W. R. Boswell, A. J. S. Colvin, & T. C. Darnold (Eds.), Organizational Systems and Employee Motivation (pp. 361-400). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203809501
Kavanagh, P., Benson, J., & Brown, M. (2007). Understanding performance appraisal fairness. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 45(2), 132-150. https://doi.org/10.1177/1038411107079108
Keeping, L. M., & Levy, P. E. (2000). Performance appraisal reactions: Measurement, modeling, and method bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 708-723. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.708
Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254-284. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254
Korsgaard, M. A., & Roberson, L. (1995). Procedural justice in performance evaluation: The role of instrumental and non-instrumental voice in performance appraisal discussions. Journal of Management, 21(4), 657-669. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639502100404
Konovsky, M. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1991). Perceived fairness of employee drug testing as a predictor of employee attitudes and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5), 698-707. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.5.698
LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 853-868. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.6.853
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrow, R. T. (2000). An examination of the mediating role of psychological empowerment on the relations between the job, interpersonal relationships, and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(3), 407-416. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.407
Lind, E. A. (2001). Fairness heuristic theory: Justice judgements as pivotal cognitions in organizational relations. ln J. Greenberg & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Advances in organizational justice, 56-88. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lind, E. A., Kray, L., & Thompson, L. (2001). Primacy effects in justice judgments: Testing predictions from fairness heuristic theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(2), 189-210. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2937
Liang, J., Farh, C. I. C., & Farh, J.-L. (2012). Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 71-92. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0176
Liu, X., & Batt, R. (2010). How supervisors influence performance: A multilevel study of coaching and group management in technology-mediated services. Personnel Psychology, 63(2), 265-298. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01170.x
Mathieu, J. E., & Taylor, S. R. (2007). A framework for testing meso-mediational relationships in Organizational Behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(2), 141-172. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.436
Maynes, T. D., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2014). Speaking more broadly: An examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 87-112. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034284
Murphy, K. R., & Cleveland, J. (1995). Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, and goal-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Morrison, E. W. (2011). Employee voice behavior: Integration and directions for future research. Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 373-412. https://doi.org/10.5465/19416520.2011.574506
Morrison, E. W., Wheeler-Smith, S. L., & Kamdar, D. (2011). Speaking up in groups: A cross-level study of group voice climate and voice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 183-191. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020744
Oh, H. J., & Chung, M. H. (2014). Employee voice behavior: exploring antecedents and examining the moderating effects of group conflicts. Korean Academy of Management, 22(4), 35-70. https://bit.ly/2RhfzFl
Pinder, C. C., & Harlos, K. P. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 20, 331-369. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-7301(01)20007-3
Purcell, J., & Hutchinson, S. (2007). Front-line managers as agents in the HRM-performance causal chain: Theory, analysis and evidence. Human Resource Management Journal, 17(1), 3-20. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2007.00022.x
Rico, R., Molleman, E., Sánchez-Manzanares, M., & Van der Vegt, G. S. (2007). The Effects of Diversity Faultlines and Team Task Autonomy on Decision Quality and Social Integration. Journal of Management, 33(1), 111-132.https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206306295307
Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous, A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599-627. https://doi.org/10.5465/256461
Seers, A. (1989). Team-member exchange quality: A new construct for role-making research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43(1), 118-135. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(89)90060-5
Seers, A., Petty, M. M., & Cashman, J. F. (1995). Team-member exchange under team and traditional management: A naturally occurring quasi-experiment. Group & Organization Management, 20(1), 18-38. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601195201003
Slocum Jr, J. W., & Sims Jr, H. P. (1980). A typology for integrating technology, organization, and job design. Human Relations, 33(3), 193-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872678003300304
Smither, J. W., & London, M. (2009). Performance management: putting research into action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Steelman, L. A., Levy, P. E., & Snell, A. F. (2004). The feedback environment scale: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(1), 165–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164403258440
Tak, J. K., & Cho, E. H. (2011). Development and validity of the coaching leadership scale. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(1), 127-155. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.1.201102.127
Takeuchi, R., Chen, Z., & Cheung, S. Y. (2012). Applying uncertainty management theory to employee voice behavior: An integrative investigation. Personnel Psychology, 65(2), 283-323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2012.01247.x
Tucker, S., Chmiel, N., Turner, N., Hershcovis, M. S., & Stride, C. B. (2008). Perceived organizational support for safety and employee safety voice: The mediating role of coworker support for safety. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 319-330. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-89220.127.116.119
van Dijk, C., & van den Ende, J. (2002). Suggestion systems: Transferring employee creativity into practicable ideas. R&D Management, 32(5), 387-395. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00270
Walumbwa, F. O., & Schaubroeck, J. (2009). Leader personality traits and employee voice behavior: mediating roles of ethical leadership and work group psychological safety. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1275-1286. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015848
Wood, R. E., & Marshall, V. (2008). Accuracy and effectiveness in appraisal outcomes: The influence of self-efficacy, personal factors and organisational variables. Human Resource Management Journal, 18(3), 295-313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2008.00067.x
Yukl, G. A., & Becker, W. S. (2006). Effective empowerment in organizations. Organization Management Journal, 3(3), 210-231. https://doi.org/10.1057/omj.2006.20