Proactive career behavior of middle-aged worker for post-retirement career

Main Article Content

HyeonJu Lee
TaeYoung Han

Abstract

Career transition of middle & young-old aged workers before their complete labor force withdrawal have received more attention in countries where aging society is progressing rapidly. Given that organizations and society may not be able to provide a full support for career transition of middle & young-old aged workers, self-directed career management of individual workers may be a key factor for the successful second career. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that many affect the proactive career behavior of middle & young-old aged workers for post-retirement career. The proactive career behavior of middle & young-old aged workers may be associated with various contexts(i.e. organizational factor, social factor) as well as individual factors. the study took multilevel approach to capture the nature of the work environment of the career middle & young-old age. At the individual level, core self evaluation, work ability and mentoring were considered as predictor variables of proactive career behavior. The study also examined the cross-level moderating effect of employment security at the organizational level. Data were collected from 127 middle & young-old aged workers in 33 organizations. The data were analyzed with Hierarchical Linear Model(HLM). The results of the study found that positive effect of core self evaluation, work ability and mentoring on proactive career behavior at the individual level. employment security moderated the relationships between pre-retirement proactive career behavior and the predictor variables(i.e. work ability, mentoring).

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
 

Article Details

Section
Empirical Articles

References

강정애, 이윤화 (2005). 멘토링 기능이 멘티의 경력몰입과 이직의도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구: 자기효능감의 조절효과를 중심으로. 조직과 인사관리연구, 29(2), 255- 281.
김기태, 조봉순 (2008). 인적자원관리와 조직 성과간의 관계에 관한 연구: 인적자원관리 성과로서 종업원 태도의 매개효과를 중심으로. 인사․조직연구, 16(1), 115-157.
김나형, 진성미 (2013). 중장년층 경력전환에서의 경력 적응에 대한 연구. 한국HRD연구, 8, 28-53.
김솔이, 유태용 (2010). 핵심자기평가와 지속학습활동 간의 관계: 목표지향성의 매개효과와 상사지원의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23(1), 131-154.
김종향 (2011). 사회적 관계망 요인이 고령자 재취업에 미치는 영향. 임상사회사업연구, 8(2), 47-70.
노용진, 박용승 (2006). 작업장 내 비공식학습의 영향요인: 작업조직 및 인사제도를 중심으로. 조직과 인사관리연구, 30(4), 149- 173.
박원우, 김미숙, 정상명, 허규만 (2007). 동일방법편의(Common Method Bias)의 원인과 해결방안. 인사・조직연구, 15(1), 89-188.
방하남, 신인철 (2011). 강요된 선택: 생애 주된 일자리에서의 퇴직과 재취업의 동학분석. 한국사회학, 45(1), 73-108.
삼성경제연구소 (2009). 실업위기의 뇌관, 중고령자 고용불안 대책
손유미, 송창용 (2011). 고령자 노동시장의 특징과 시사점. 한국직업능력개발원
신계수, 조성숙 (2011). 중년층의 직업특성과 활동특성이 은퇴준비에 미치는 영향. 한국콘텐츠학회논문지, 11, 296-312.
양동민, 박종민, 김형진, 심덕섭 (2011). 핵심자기평가가 목표달성도에 미치는 영향: 목표 기대감 및 목표 자기일치성의 매개효과 검증. 상업교육연구, 25(2), 163-186.
이규만 (2007). 조직내에서 멘토관계가 구성원의 행동에 미치는 영향. 인적자원관리연구, 14(4), 259-275.
이동하, 탁진국 (2008). 주도성과 핵심자기평가가 경력성공에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 21(1), 83- 103.
이재원 (2009). 종단적 분석을 통한 조직후원인식과 직무/작업 환경 변수 인식 사이의 인과 관계 추정. 인사관리연구, 33(3), 159- 185.
이희정, 김금미 (2010). 경력단절여성의 진로장벽지각이 진로준비행동에 미치는 영향: 진로결정 자기효능감의 매개효과를 중심으로. 상담학연구, 11(2), 623-640.
정 현, 탁진국 (2005). 멘터역할척도 개발과 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 18(3), 659-676.
최옥금 (2011). 우리나라 중, 고령자의 은퇴 과정에 관한 연구: 생애주된일자리와 가교일자리를 중심으로. 한국노년학, 31(1), 15- 31.
통계청 (2008). 경제활동인구 부가조사(청년층, 고령층).
통계청 (2012). 장래인구추계.
한태영 (1994). 조직원의 경력계획에 대한 멘토관계와 자기효능감의 영향. 고려대학교 일반대학원 석사학위논문.
한태영, 김원형 (2006). 권한위임과 조직공정성이 직무효과성에 미치는 영향에 대한 다수준적(multulevel) 고찰, 인사․조직연구, 14, 183-216.
Adams, G., & Rau, B. (2004). Job seeking among retirees seeking bridge employment. Personnel Psychology, 57(3), 719-744.
Bachman, J., O'Maley, P., & Johnston, J. (1978). Adolescence to adult change and stability in the lives of young men. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review, 84(2), 191.
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In Klein, K. J., & Kozlowski, S. W. J.(Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chao, G. T., Walz, P., & Gardner, P. D. (1992). Formal and informal mentorships: A comparison on mentoring functions and contrast with nonmentored counterparts. Personnel Psychology, 45(3), 619-636.
Claes, R., & Ruiz-Quintanilla, S. A. (1998). Influences of early career experiences, occupational group, and national culture on proactive career behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52(3), 357-378.
Clark, M. S. (1983). Reactions to aid in communal and exchange relationships. In Fisher, J. D., Nadler, A., & DePaulo, B. M.(Eds.), New directions in helping. New York: Academic Press, 281-304.
Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of management, 26(3), 435-462.
Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of theorizing in strategic human resource management: Tests of universalistic, contingency, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of management Journal, 39(4), 802-835.
Dreher, G. F., & Ash, R. A. (1990). A comparative study of mentoring among men and women in managerial, professional, and technical positions. Journal of applied psychology, 75(5), 539.
Ensher, E. A., Thomas, C., & Murphy, S. E. (2001). Comparison of traditional, step-ahead, and peer mentoring on protégés' support, satisfaction, and perceptions of career success: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Business and Psychology, 15(3), 419-438.
Erez, A., & Judge, T. A. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations to goal setting, motivation, and performance. Journal of applied psychology, 86(6), 1270.
Graham, J. W., & Organ, D. W. (1993). Commitment and the covenantal organization. Journal of Managerial Issues, 483-502.
Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of management Journal, 33(1), 64-86.
Hall, D. T. (1996). Protean careers of the 21st century. The Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 8-16.
Hall, D. T. (2002). Careers in and out of organizations (Vol. 107). Sage.
Hall, D. T. (2004). The protean career: A quarter-century journey. Journal of vocational behavior, 65(1), 1-13.
Han, T. Y., & Williams, K. J. (2008), Multilevel investigation of adaptive performance: Individual and team level relationships. Group & Organization Management, 33, 657-684.
Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American psychologist, 44(3), 513.
Hobfoll, S. E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of general psychology, 6(4), 307.
Hobfoll, S. E., & Vaux, A. (1993). Social support: Social resources and social context.
Ilmarinen, J., & Tuomi, K. (2004). Past, present and future of work ability. In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposiumon Work Ability, Helsinki.
Ilmarinen, J., Tuomi, K., & Seitsamo, J. (2005). New dimensions of work ability. International Congress Series, 1280, 3-7.
Jex, S. M., Wang, M., & Zarubin, A. (2007). Aging and occupational health. Aging and Work in the 21st Century, 199-223.
Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits-self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability-with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology, 86(1), 80.
Judge, T. A., & Bretz, R. D. (1994). Political influence behavior and career success. Journal of Management, 20(1), 43-65.
Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Erez, A., & Locke, E. A. (2005). Core self-evaluations and job and life satisfaction: the role of self-concordance and goal attainment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 257.
Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self‐evaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel Psychology, 56(2), 303-331.
Judge, T. A., Locke, E. A., & Durham, C. C. (1997). The dispositional causes of job satisfaction: A core evaluations approach. Research in Organizational Behavior, 19, 151-188.
Kaplan, B. H., Cassel, J. C., & Gore, S. (1977). Social support and health. Medical care, 15(5), 47-58.
King, Z. (2004). Career self-management: Its nature, causes and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 112-133.
Kossek, E. E., Roberts, K., Fisher, S., & Demarr, B. (1998). Career self management: a quasi experimental assessment of the effects of a training intervention. Personnel Psychology, 51(4), 935-960.
Kozlowski, S. W., & Hattrup, K. (1992). A disagreement about within-group agreement: Disentangling issues of consistency versus consensus. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(2), 161.
Kram, K. E. (1983). Phases of the mentor relationship. Academy of Management journal, 26(4), 608-625.
Kram, K. E., & Hall, D. T. (1989). Mentoring as an antidote to stress during corporate trauma. Human Resource Management, 28(4), 493-510.
Lankau, M. J., & Scandura, T. A. (2002). An investigation of personal learning in mentoring relationships: Content, antecedents, and consequences. Academy of Management Journal, 45(4), 779-790.
Levinson, D. J. (1978). The seasons of a man's life. Random House Digital, Inc..
McArdle, S., Waters, L., Briscoe, J. P., & Hall, D. T. (2007). Employability during unemployment: Adaptability, career identity and human and social capital. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71, 247-264
Ng, T. W., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta analysis. Personnel psychology, 58(2), 367-408.
Noe, R. A. (1988). An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships. Personnel psychology, 41(3), 457-479.
Noe, R. A., Greenberger, D. B., & Wang, S. (2002). Mentoring: What we know and where we might go. Research in personnel and human resources management, 21, 129-173.
Orpen, C. (1994). The effects of organizational and individual career management on career success. International journal of manpower, 15(1), 27-37.
Penley, L. E., & Gould, S. (1981). Measuring career strategies: The psychometric characteristics of the career strategies inventory. Center for Studies in Business, Economics and Human Resources, the University of Texas at San Antonio.
Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation. Boston, MA.
Schultz, K. S., & Wang, M. (2007). The changing nature of mid-and late careers. 21st century management: a reference handbook. London: Sage.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219-237.
Seitsamo, J., Tuomi, K., & Ilmainen, J. (2008). Diversity of work ability and the work ability index. In Gould, R., Ilmarinen, J., Jarvisalo, J., & Koskinen, S.(Eds.), Dimensions of work ability. Helsinki, 109-122.
Strauss, K., Griffin, M. A., & Parker, S. K. (2012). Future work selves: How salient hoped-for identities motivate proactive career behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 580.
Tuomi, K. (1997). Eleven-year follow-up of aging worker. Scand J Work Environ Health 23, 1.
Tuomi, K., Ilmarinen, J., Jahkola, M., Katajarinne, L. & Tulkki, A. (2006). Work ability index. First reprint of the second revised edition. Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki.
Van Dam, K. (2007). Antecedents and consequences of employability orientation. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 13(1), 29-51
Virtanen, P., Vahtera, J., Kivimäki, M., Pentti, J., & Ferrie, J. (2002). Employment security and health. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 56(8), 569-574.
Wang, M. (2007). Profiling retirees in the retirement transition and adjustment process: examining the longitudinal change patterns of retirees' psychological well-being. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 455.
Wang, M., Henkens, K., & van Solinge, H. (2011). Retirement adjustment: A review of theoretical and empirical advancements. American Psychologist, 66(3), 204.
Wang, M., & Shultz, K. S. (2010). Employee retirement: A review and recommendations for future investigation. Journal of Management, 36(1), 172-206.
Wang, M., Zhan, Y., Liu, S., & Shultz, K. S. (2008). Antecedents of bridge employment: a longitudinal investigation. Journal of applied Psychology, 93(4), 818.