Main Article Content
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of workplace bullying, a magnifying issue in various local organizations, at the individual and the team level, and to examine the effects of distributive fairness and competitive climate on workplace bullying. The study also examined whether effects of the antecedents show different patterns by team-level power imbalance, which indicates the interaction effect on bullying in the workplace in terms of the locus of level. The data was collected from 175 team members of 33 teams. In order to test the research hypotheses, WABA (Within And Between Analysis) was used as a multilevel analysis and the interaction effect of power imbalance was analysed by Multiple Relation Analysis (MRA) of the WABA. Results showed that the relationship between fairness and bullying primarily existed at both the team and individual levels, and the competitive climate was related with bullying at the team level. Interaction effects of power imbalance were also significant, making the effects of antecedents locate at different level. The fairness of evaluation is high at the team level when the power imbalance is low, whereas the competitive climate showed a relationship at the individual level when the power imbalance is high. Based on the results, the study provided theoretical and practical implications.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422.
Aquino, K., & Thau, S. (2009). Workplace victimization: Aggression from the target's perspective. Annual Rview of Psychology, 60, 717-741. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163703
Barling, J., Dupré, K. E., & Kelloway, E. K. (2009). Predicting workplace aggression and violence. Annual review of psychology, 60, 671-692. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163629
Brockner, J., & Wiesenfeld, B. M. (1996). An integrative framework for explaining reactions to decisions: interactive effects of outcomes and procedures. Psychological Bulletin, 120(2), 189. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.120.2.189
Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L., & Slocum Jr, J. W. (1998). Effects of trait competitiveness and perceived intraorganizational competition on salesperson goal setting and performance. The Journal of Marketing, 88-98. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224299806200407
Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 234–246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.234
Choi, H. S., & Park, H. S. (2010). Relationship between psychological work environment and mobbing at Workplace - investigation on moderating effect of Neuroticism, Journal of Korea Service Management Society, 11(2), 209-233. https://doi.org/10.15706/jksms.2010.11.2.010
Choi, S. Y., Jun, H. S., & Lee, S. Y. (2017). The relationship of trait anger and social avoidance with workplace bullying victimization among male and female office workers: The moderating effects of organizational climate. Korean journal of culture and social issues, 23(1), 53-74. https://doi.org/10.20406/kjcs.2017.02.23.1.53
Dansereau, F., Cho, J., & Yammarino, F. J. (2006). Avoiding the “Fallacy of the Wrong Level.” Group & Organization Management, 31(5), 536–577. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601106291131
Dansereau, F., & McConnell, J. J. (2000). DETECT for windows users' manual. New York: The institute for theory testing.
Dansereau, F., & Yammarino, F. J. (2000). Within and between analysis: The variant paradigm as an underlying approach to theory building and testing. In Klien, K. J. & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations (pp. 425-466). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., & Notelaers, G. (2009). Measuring exposure to bullying and harassment at work: Validity, factor structure and psychometric properties of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised. Work & Stress, 23(1), 24-44. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370902815673
Einarsen, S., & Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, L. (2003). The concept of bullying at work: The European tradition, In Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace International perspectives in research and practice. 3-30, London/New York: Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203164662.pt1
Felson, R. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1993). A social interactionist approach to violence: Cross- cultural applications. Violence and Victims, 8(3), 295. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.8.3.295
O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniel, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: A social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 557–579. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025679
George, J. M. (1990). Personality, affect, and behavior in groups. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(2), 107–116. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.2.107
Han, T. Y. (2010). An Investigation of the Construct of Performance Evaluation System Effectiveness from the Evaluatee’s Perspective and Its Measurement Tool. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23(2), 365-394. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.23.2.201005.365
Han, T. Y., & Tak, J. K. (2005). Transformational/Transactional Leadership: Revisit Using a Multilevel Approach, Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 18(2), 337-360.
Hershcovis, M. S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K. A., Dupré, K. E., Inness, M., … Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 228–238. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.228
Hinkin, T. R., & Schriesheim, C. A. (1989). Development and application of new scales to measure the French and Raven (1959) bases of social power. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 561–567. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.561
Houshmand, M., O’Reilly, J., Robinson, S., & Wolff, A. (2012). Escaping bullying: The simultaneous impact of individual and unit-level bullying on turnover intentions. Human Relations, 65(7), 901–918. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712445100
Huh, K. M. (2007). The Relationship between Team Competition and Intrateam Conflict. (Seoul National University). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T11049702
Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (1998). The experience and evolution of trust: Implications for cooperation and teamwork. Academy of management review, 23(3), 531-546. https://doi.org/10.2307/259293
Kim, H. Y., & Kang, D. S. (2017). Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure ‘Workplace Wang-tta’. Korean Management Review, 46(1), 49-74. https://doi.org/10.17287/kmr.2017.46.1.49
Kim, S. H. (2006). The effect of team organizational factor and teamness on team adaptive performance: Mediating effects of team empowerment and Moderating effects of team task interdependence. (Kwangwoon University). Retrieved from http://www.riss.kr/link?id=T10848441
Ko, S. I. (2002). Effects of Performance-Contingent Rewards, Competition, and Feedback on Intrinsic Motivation. Korean Management Review, 31(2), 509-528.
Ko, Y. M., Kim J. Y., & Chung M. H. (2017). Structure Antecedents of Workplace Incivility: A Social Network Perspective, Korean Management Review, 46(6), 1523-1553. https://doi.org/10.17287/kmr.2017.46.6.1523
Nam, W., Kim, J. W., Kim, Y. K., Koo, J. W., & Park., C. Y. (2010). The Reliability and Validity of the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) for Nurses for the Assessment of Workplace Bullying. The Korean Journal of Occupational Environmental Medicine, 22(2), 129-139.
Neuman, J. H., & Baron, R. A. (2003). Social antecedents of bullying: A social interactionist perspective, In Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace International perspectives in research and practice. 185-202, London/New York: Taylor & Francis. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203164662.ch9
Park, K. K., & Choi, H. S. (2007). A Study on Determinants and Outcomes of Mobbing at Workplace - investigation on mediating effect of Mobbing at Workplace. Zeitschrift fur wirtschaftswissenschaften, 25(4), 43-70.
Parzefall, M. R., & Salin, D. M. (2010). Perceptions of and reactions to workplace bullying: A social exchange perspective. Human Relations, 63(6), 761-780. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726709345043
Raven, B. H. (1993). The bases of power: Origins and recent developments. Journal of Social Issues, 49(4), 227-251. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1993.tb01191.x
Raven, B. H., Schwarzwald, J., & Koslowsky, M. (1998). Conceptualizing and measuring a power/interaction model of interpersonal influence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 28(4), 307-332. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816. 1998.tb01708.x
Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Yammarino, F. J. (2000). Investigating contingencies: An examination of the impact of span of supervision and upward controllingness on leader–member exchange using traditional and multivariate within- and between-entities analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5), 659–677. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.5.659
Schriesheim, C. A., Hinkin, T. R., & Podsakoff, P. M. (1991). Can ipsative and single-item measures produce erroneous results in field studies of French and Raven’s (1959) five bases of power? An empirical investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(1), 106–114. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.76.1.106
Stanne, M. B., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Does competition enhance or inhibit motor performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(1), 133–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.1.133
Tak, J. K., & Kang, K. S. (2011). A Study on the Relationship of Team Members’ Competitiveness, Team Commitment and Team Satisfaction: A Mediating Role of Relationship Conflict. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(1), 157-181. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.1.201102.157
Vartia, M. (1996). The sources of bullying–psychological work environment and organizational climate. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5(2), 203–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594329608414855
Yammarino, F. J. (1998). Multivariate aspects of the varient/waba approach: A discussion and leadership illustration. The Leadership Quarterly, 9(2), 203–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1048-9843(98)90005-4
Yammarino, F. J., Dansereau F., Schriesheim, C. A., Castro S., Cogliser C., De Church, L., & Zhou, X. (2000). DIG for WABA User’s Guide with Interpretations. NY: The Institute for Theory Testing.
You, M. B., & Shim, H. I. (2012). A Study on the Cultural Characteristics of Korean Society: Discovering Its Categories Using the Cultural Consensus Model. Korean journal of culture and social issues, 19(3), 457-485.
Yukl, G., & Tracey, J. B. (1992). Consequences of influence tactics used with subordinates, peers, and the boss. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(4), 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.4.525
Einarsen, S., & Zapf, D. (2002). Individual antecedents of bullying. In Bullying and Emotional Abuse in the Workplace (pp. 165–184). https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203164662.pt3
Zapf, D., & Gross, C. (2001). Conflict escalation and coping with workplace bullying: A replication and extension. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10(4), 497–522. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320143000834