The effects of Work Flow and leisure satisfaction on employees’ affect: Focus on sleep quality as a mediator

Main Article Content

EunKyoung Chung
YoungWoo Sohn
SoRi Park
YooJin Ha
HyunKook Sohn

Abstract

In this paper, optimal experience that enhances positive affect and life satisfaction was explored based on the previous findings that defensive mechanism such as psychological detachment and relaxation does not promote positive affect but mastery experience does. Also the work-related factors and non-work-related factors among optimal experience were compared in terms of their influences on the arousal of positive affect. Lastly, the mediating effect of sleep quality on optimal experience was examined. The survey data were gathered from 142 conglomerate employees and work flow and leisure satisfaction were suggested as recovery mechanisms since each represents optimal experience in the work-related domain and non-work- related domain. In the first correlational analysis, psychological detachment and relaxation were negatively associated with negative affect whereas no significant correlation with positive affect was found, which was consistent with the previous findings. Work flow and leisure satisfaction were positively associated with positive affect while they are negatively associated with negative affect. In the hierarchical regression analysis, work flow and leisure satisfaction were compared in terms of their impacts on individuals’ affect. Predicting positive affect, work flow was the only significant predictor of the positive affect experienced next morning even when sex, age, school, usual positive/negative affect, and work satisfaction were controlled. Sleep quality significantly mediated the relation between work flow and positive affect experienced in the next morning. The result suggests that optimal experience such as work flow promotes a positive change not only in the affective level but also in the physiological level. The implications and limitations of this study and the directions for the future research were discussed.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
ChungE., SohnY., ParkS., HaY., & SohnH. (2012). The effects of Work Flow and leisure satisfaction on employees’ affect: : Focus on sleep quality as a mediator. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 25(1), 125-145. Retrieved from https://journal.ksiop.or.kr/index.php/KJIOP/article/view/276
Section
Empirical Articles

Funding data

References

국민일보 (2016, 2, 19). [세태기획] 새내기 직장인 ‘거짓말’로 산다... 사실대로 얘기하면 귀찮게 할까봐.

뉴시스 (2018, 1, 22). 직장인 절반 이상 “워라밸 좋다면 연봉 낮아도 이직한다.”

매일경제 (2017, 6, 2). [Biz Times] 100세 시대 왔다 채용․승진․정년…기존 규정 버려라.

연합뉴스 (2017,. 10, 16). 근로시간 단축 초읽기…‘저녁 있는 삶’ vs ‘12조원 비용’

조선비즈 (2016, 12, 15). [트렌드2017]⑧ ‘저축 불가, 순간을 산다’ 욜로(YOLO)세대…한번뿐인 삶을 즐기자.

한라일보 (2017, 3, 6). “직장인 66%, 근무시간 외에도 업무 압박 느껴”

가영희 (2006). 성인의 직장-가정갈등이 영역별 만족도와 주관적 삶의 질에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 여성, 11(2), 163-186.

김영일, 유태용 (2008). 조직 구성원의 개인-환경 부합과 정직성이 직장 내 일탈행동에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 21(1), 27-58.

김정운, 박정열 (2008). ‘일과 삶의 균형(Work-LIfe Balance)’ 척도 개발을 위한 연구. 여가학연구, 5(3), 53-69.

김청택 (2016). 특집논문: 구조방정식모형의 문제점과 해결 방안; 탐색적 요인분석의 오, 남용 문제와 교정. 조사연구, 17(1), 1-29.

박동건, 이은정, 최대정 (2005). 직장인의 정서경험과 과업수행 및 맥락수행의 관계에서 성별과 억제규범의 차별적 영향력. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 18(3), 413-436.

손은율, 최명옥, 박동건 (2011). LMXSC 가 조직몰입 및 일탈행동에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 24(4), 719-738.

오아라, 박경규, 용현주 (2013). 조직지원인식과 직장내 일탈행동의 관계: 정서적 몰입의 매개효과와 조직기반 자긍심의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 26(1), 119-147.

유홍준 (2009). 직종별 직장절도 (職場竊盜) 에 대한 태도와 경험 및 인지. 사회과학, 42(1), 113-134.

이요행, 방묘진, 오세진 (2005). 가족친화적 조직문화가 조직몰입, 직장만족, 이직의도, 그리고 가정만족에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 18(3), 639-657.

이은희 (2000). 일과 가족 갈등의 통합모형: 선행변인, 결과변인과의 관계. 한국심리학회지: 일반, 19(2), 1-42.

이정민, 신용환, 손영우 (2016). 적대적 귀인이 반생산적 과업행동에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 29(4), 491-523.

이주일, 유경 (2010). 직장-가정 갈등의 세대 차이와 직장-가정 갈등이 행복에 미치는 영향: 직장여성의 경우. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23(3), 471-501.

이춘우 (2014). 한국기업의 조직문화. 인사·조직연구, 22, 39-93.

장재윤 (2004). 직무 특성과 직장-가정간 갈등이 조직에 대한 애착 및 조직시민행동에 미치는 효과: 성차를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 17(1), 107-127.

최상진, 유승엽 (1992). 한국인의 체면에 대한 사회 심리학적 한 분석. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 6(2), 137-157.

최해연, 최종안 (2016). 한국인의 정서 구조와 측정. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 30 (2), 89-114.

한주원, 박경규 (2009). 상사의 비인격적 감독이 부하의 직장 내 일탈행동에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 22(2), 233-259.

홍세희 (2000). 구조 방정식 모형의 적합도 지수 선정기준과 그 근거. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 19(1), 161-177.

Adams, G. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work-family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 411-420.

Allen, T. D., Herst, D. E., Bruck, C. S., & Sutton, M. (2000). Consequences associated with work-to-family conflict: a review and agenda for future research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 278-308.

Allen, T. D., Johnson, R. C., Saboe, K. N., Cho, E., Dumani, S., & Evans, S. (2012). Dispositional variables and work-amily conflict: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 17-26.

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24, 452-471.

Aquino, K., Lewis, M. U., & Bradfield, M. (1999). Justice constructs, negative affectivity, and employee deviance: A proposed model and empirical test. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 1073-1091.

Aryee, S., Srinivas, E. S., & Tan, H. H. (2005). Rhythms of life: antecedents and outcomes of work-family balance in employed parents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 132-146.

Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of applied psychology, 85, 349-360.

Berry, C. M., Ones, D. S., & Sackett, P. R. (2007). Interpersonal deviance, organizational deviance, and their common correlates: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 410-424.

Bowling, N. A., & Gruys, M. L. (2010). Overlooked issues in the conceptualization and measurement of counterproductive work behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 54-61.

Bragger, J. D., Rodriguez-Srednicki, O., Kutcher, E. J., & Indovino, L., & Rosner, E. (2005). Work-family conflict, work-family culture, and organizational citizenship behavior among teachers. Journal of Business and Psychology, 20, 303-324.

Brown, T. A (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research.. New York, Guilford Press.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long(Ed.), Testing structural equation models. Sage, Newbury Park, California.

Byron, K. (2005). A meta-analytic review of work-amily conflict and its antecedents. Journal of vocational behavior, 67, 169-198.

Camara, W. J., & Schneider, D. L. (1994). Integrity tests: Facts and unresolved issues. American Psychologist, 49, 112-119.

Chen, P. Y., & Spector, P. E. (1992). Relationships of work stressors with aggression, withdrawal, theft and substance use: An exploratory study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 65, 177-184.

Cho, Y. H., & Yoon, J. (2001). The origin and function of dynamic collectivism: An analysis of Korean corporate culture. Asia Pacific Business Review, 7, 70-88.

Clore, G. L., Schwarz, N., & Conway, M. (1994). Affective causes and consequences of social information processing. Handbook of social cognition, 1, 323-417.

Coffin, B. (2003). Breaking the silence on white collar crime. Risk Management, 50, 8.

Colbert, A. E., Mount, M. K., Harter, J. K., Witt, L. A., & Barrick, M. R. (2004). Interactive effects of personality and perceptions of the work situation on workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 599-609.

Dalal, R. S. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1241-1255.

Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., Davis, R. D., & Rostow, C. D. (2007). Cognitive ability predicts objectively measured counterproductive work behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 616-627.

Donaldson, S. I., & Grant-Vallone, E. J. (2002). Understanding self-report bias in organizational behavior research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17, 245-260.

Edwards, J. R., & Rothbard, N. P. (2000). Mechanisms linking work and family: Clarifying the relationship between work and family constructs. Academy of Management Review, 25, 178-199.

Ferguson, M., Carlson, D., Hunter, E. M., & Whitten, D. (2012). A two-study examination of work-family conflict, production deviance and gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81, 245-258.

Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 291-309.

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of applied psychology, 77, 65-78.

Frone, M. R., Yardley, J. K., & Market, K. S. (1997). Developing and testing an integrative model of the work-family interface. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 145-167.

Germeys, L., & De Gieter, S. (2017). Clarifying the dynamic interrelation of conflicts between the work and home domain and counterproductive work behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 457-467.

Goh, A., Bruursema, K., Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (2003). Comparisons of self and coworker reports of counterproductive work behavior. In Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology Conference in Orlando, FL April (pp. 11-13).

Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76-88.

Gruys, M.L. (1999) The Dimensionality of Deviant Employee Performance in the Workplace. University of Minnesota.

Gruys, M. L., & Sackett, P. R. (2003). Investigating the dimensionality of counterproductive work behavior. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11, 30-42.

Hershcovis, M. S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K. A., Dupre, K. E., Inness, M., LeBlanc, M. M., & Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 228-238.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44, 513-524.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). The influence of culture, community, and the nested-self in the stress process: advancing conservation of resources theory. Applied Psychology, 50, 337-421.

Hobfoll, S. E., & Lilly, R. S. (1993). Resource conservation as a strategy for community psychology. Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 128-148.

Hough, L. M. (1992). The 'Big Five' personality variables-construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human performance, 5, 139-155.

Jenkins, J. S., Heneghan, C. J., Bailey, S. F., & Barber, L. K. (2016). The Work-Family Interface as a Mediator between Job Demands and Employee Behaviour. Stress and Health, 32, 128-137.

Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Oxford, England: John Wiley.

Kossek, E. E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work-family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior - Human recources research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 139-149.

Kuykendall, L., Tay, L., & Ng, V. (2015). Leisure engagement and subjective well-being: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 364- 403.

Marcus, B., & Schuler, H. (2004). Antecedents of counterproductive behavior at work: a general perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 647.

Martins, L. L., Eddleston, K. A., & Veiga, J. F. (2002). Moderator of the relationship between work-family conflict and career satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 399-409.

Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1990). A review and meta-analysis of the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of organizational commitment. Psychological bulletin, 108, 171- 194

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three- component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1, 61-89.

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of vocational behavior, 61, 20-52.

Miles, D. E., Borman, W. E., Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2002). Building an integrative model of extra role work behaviors: A comparison of counterproductive work behavior with organizational citizenship behavior. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 51-57.

Mitchell, M. S., & Ambrose, M. L. (2007). Abusive supervision and workplace deviance and the moderating effects of negative reciprocity beliefs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1159.

Morgan, W. B., & King, E. B. (2012). The Association between Work-Family Guilt and Pro-and Anti-Social Work Behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 68, 684-703.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-247.

Murphy, K. R. (1993). Honesty in the workplace. Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

Nederhof, A. J. (1985). Methods of coping with social desirability bias: A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 263-280.

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., & McMurrian, R. (1996). Development and validation of work - family conflict and family-work conflict scales. Journal of applied psychology, 81,400-410.

Pelled, L. H., & Xin, K. R. (1999). Down and out: An investigation of the relationship between mood and employee withdrawal behavior. Journal of management, 25, 875-895.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879.

Rabkin, J. G., & Struening, E. L. (1976). Life events, stress, and illness. Science, 194, 1013- 1020.

Robinson, S. L., & Bennett, R. J. (1995). A typology of deviant workplace behaviors: A multidimensional scaling study. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 555-572.

Robinson, S. L., & O'Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: The influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 658-672.

Sackett, P. R. (2002). The structure of counterproductive work behaviors: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 5-11.

Sackett, P. and DeVore, C. (2001). ‘Counterproductive behaviors at work’ in Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology. N. Anderson, D. Ones, H. Sinagil and V. Chockalingam (eds). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Scott K. L., Ingram, A., Zagenczyk, T. J., & Shoss, M. K. (2015). Work-family conflict and social undermining behaviour: An examination of PO fit and gender differences. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88, 203-218.

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The Recovery Experience Questionnaire: development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 204.

Spector, P. E. (1997). The role of frustration in antisocial behavior at work. In R. A. Giacalone & J. Greenberg (Eds.), Antisocial behavior inorganizations (pp. 1-7). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Spector, P. E., & Fox, S. (2005). A model of counterproductive work behavior. In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive workplace behavior: Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 151–174). Washington, DC: APA.

Spector, P. E., Fox, S., Penney, L. M., Bruursema, K., Goh, A., & Kessler, S. (2006). The dimensionality of counterproductivity: Are all counterproductive behaviors created equal?. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 446-460.

Vardi, Y., & Weitz, E. (2003). Misbehavior in organizations: Theory, research, and management. Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063.

Wegge, J., Dick, R. V., Fisher, G. K., West, M. A., & Dawson, J. F. (2006). A test of basic assumptions of affective events theory (AET) in call centre work. British Journal of Management, 17, 237-254.

Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes, and consequences of affective experiences at work. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 1-74). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>