Main Article Content
This study examined the effect of downward counterfactual thinking that imaging alternative relationships to the actual positive experiences with coworkers in the past on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), through a moderated mediation model of positive meaning in work and perceived organizational support (POS). To address this mechanism, we conducted an experiment with 106 Korean employees, working in a variety of organizations, by assigning them to either counterfactual or factual conditions randomly. The results showed that participants who were in downward counterfactual thinking condition, manipulated to assume the alternative relationships to the actual positive experiences of helping other employees, evaluated more OCB than those who were in factual thinking condition. Positive meaning in work fully mediated the relationship between counterfactual reflection and OCB. There was also a significant interaction effect between positive meaning in work and POS on OCB. Specifically, positive meaning in work was more strongly associated with OCB as POS increased. Then, the result of examining the conditional indirect effect for a moderated mediation model showed that POS significantly moderated indirect path between positive meaning in work and OCB. Specifically, the mediating effect of positive meaning in work on OCB became stronger as POS increased. Limitations and further directions were discussed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
윤서원, 이희경 (2014). 긍정적 경험에 대한 사후가정사고가 삶의 의미와 주관적 안녕감에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 26, 953-971.
윤수민 (2011). 조직몰입, 직무안정성, 그리고 조직문화가 조직시민행동에 미치는 영향. 부산대학교 대학원 심리학과.
장지원, 박형인 (2015). 조직몰입과 조직시민행동에 대한 일-가정 갈등, LMX 및 성별의 상호작용효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 28, 199-213.
정현선, 양현철, 박동건 (2013). 직장 유연성이 신입사원급 직장인들의 이직의도와 혁신적 업무행동에 미치는 영향: 일-성장 균형, 조직지원인식의 매개 효과 및 셀프 리더십의 조절 효과를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 26, 149-176.
허태균 (2002). 사후가정사고의 심리적 기능과 응용적 가치. 한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제, 8, 171-190.
Aiken, L. S., West, S. G., & Reno, R. R. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & McKee, M. C. (2007). Transformational leadership and psychological well-being: the mediating role of meaningful work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 193-203.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Bettencourt, L. A., Gwinner, K. P., & Meuter, M. L. (2001). A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 29-41.
Blatt, R., & Camden, C. (2007). Positive relationships and cultivating community. In J. E. Dutton & B. R. Ragins (Eds.), Exploring positive relationships at work: Building a theoretical and research foundation (pp. 243-264). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY: Wiley.
Blumer, H. (1966). Social implications of the thought of GM Mead. American Journal of Sociology, 71. 535-544.
Buck, M. L., & Miller, D. T. (1994). Reactions to incongruous negative life events. Social Justice Research, 7, 29-46.
Chen, Z., Eisenberger, R., Johnson, K. M., Sucharski, I. L., & Aselage, J. (2009). Perceived organizational support and extra-role performance: which leads to which?. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 119-124.
Diefendorff, J. M., Brown, D. J., Kamin, A. M., & Lord, R. G. (2002). Examining the roles of job involvement and work centrality in predicting organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 93-108.
Dutton, J. E., & Ragins, B. R. E. (2007). Exploring positive relationships at work: Building a theoretical and research foundation. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 51-59.
Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500-507.
Ersner-Hershfield, H., Galinsky, A. D., Kray, L. J., & King, B. G. (2010). Company, country, connections: counterfactual origins increase organizational commitment, patriotism, and social investment. Psychological Science, 21, 1479-1486.
Farh, J. L., Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1990). Accounting for organizational citizenship behavior: Leader fairness and task scope versus satisfaction. Journal of Management, 16, 705-721.
Fine, G. A. (1996). Justifying work: Occupational rhetorics as resources in restaurant kitchens. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 90-115.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226.
George, J. M., & Bettenhausen, K. (1990). Understanding prosocial behavior, sales performance, and turnover: a group-level analysis in a service context. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 698-709.
George, J. M., & Brief, A. P. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: a conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 310- 329.
Grant, A. M. (2007). Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Academy of Management Review, 32, 393-417.
Grant, A. M. (2008). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 108-124.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 250-279.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Kahneman, D., & Miller, D. T. (1986). Norm theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives. Psychological Review, 93, 136-153.
Konovsky, M. A., & Pugh, S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 656-669.
Koo, M., Algoe, S. B., Wilson, T. D., & Gilbert, D. T. (2008). It’s a wonderful life: Mentally subtracting positive events improves people’s affective states, contrary to their affective forecasts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1217-1224.
Kray, L. J., George, L. G., Liljenquist, K. a, Galinsky, A. D., Tetlock, P. E., & Roese, N. J. (2010). From what might have been to what must have been: counterfactual thinking creates meaning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 106-118.
Lee, K., & Allen, N. J. (2002). Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance: the role of affect and cognitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 131-142.
Markman, K. D., & McMullen, M. N. (2003). A reflection and evaluation model of comparative thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 244-267.
Markman, K. D., Gavanski, I., Sherman, S. J., & McMullen, M. N. (1993). The mental simulation of better and worse possible worlds. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 87-109.
McGill, R., Tukey, J. W., & Larsen, W. A. (1978). Variations of box plots. The American Statistician, 32, 12-16.
McNeely, B. L., & Meglino, B. M. (1994). The role of dispositional and situational antecedents in prosocial organizational behavior: An examination of the intended beneficiaries of prosocial behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 836-844.
Medvec, V. H., Madey, S. F., & Gilovich, T. (1995). When less is more: counterfactual thinking and satisfaction among Olympic medalists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 603-610.
Medvec. V. H., Savitsky, K. (1997). When doing better menas feeling worse: The effects of categorical cutoff points on counterfactual thinking and satisfaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1284-1296.
Moorman, R. H. (1991). Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions influence employee citizenship?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 845-855.
Moorman, R. H. (1993). The influence of cognitive and affective based job satisfaction measures on the relationship between satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Human Relations, 46, 759-776.
Moorman, R. H., Blakely, G. L., & Niehoff, B. P. (1998). Does perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between procedural justice and organizational citizenship behavior?. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 351-357.
Nario-Redmond, M. R., & Branscombe, N. R. (1996). It could have been better or it might have been worse: Implications for blame assignment in rape cases. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 18, 347-366.
Olivier, A. L., & Rothmann, S. (2007). Antecedents of work engagement in a multinational company. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33, 49-56.
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com.
Organ, D. W. (1990). The motivational basis of organizational citizenship behavior. Research in Organizational Behavior, 12, 43-72.
Organ, D. W. (1994). Personality and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Management, 20, 465-478.
Podsakoff, P. M., Ahearne, M., & MacKenzie, S. B. (1997). Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 262-270.
Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 122-141.
Pratt, M. G., & Ashforth, B. E. (2003). Fostering meaningfulness in working and at work. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 309-327). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42, 185-227.
Rioux, S. M., & Penner, L. A. (2001). The causes of organizational citizenship behavior: a motivational analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1306-1314.
Roese, N. J. (1994). The functional basis of counterfactual thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 805-818.
Roese, N. J. (1997). Counterfactual thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 133-148.
Roese, N. J., & Hur, T. (1997). Affective determinants of counterfactual thinking. Social Cognition, 15, 274-290.
Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91-127.
Rotundo, M., & Sackett, P. R. (2002). The relative importance of task, citizenship, and counterproductive performance to global ratings of job performance: a policy-capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 66-80.
Scroggins, W. A. (2008). Antecedents and outcomes of experienced meaningful work: A person-job fit perspective. Journal of Business Inquiry, 7, 68-78.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422-445.
Spector, P. E., Bauer, J. A., & Fox, S. (2010). Measurement artifacts in the assessment of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: do we know what we think we know?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 781-790.
Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20, 322-337
Van Scotter, J. R., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1996). Interpersonal facilitation and job dedication as separate facets of contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 525-531.
Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Wells, G. L., & Gavanski, I. (1989). Mental simulation of causality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 161-169.
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17, 601-617.
Wrzesniewski, A. (2003). Finding positive meaning in work. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp. 296-308), San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Wrzesniewski, A., Dutton, J. E., & Debebe, G. (2003). Interpersonal sensemaking and the meaning of work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 25, 93-135.