Comparison of Psychological, Job and Career Characteristics between Groups according to Career Pursuit Differences Focusing on occupation change group, same occupation turnover group, no turnover group

Main Article Content

JiYeon Cho
Jinkook Tak


The purpose of this study is to search for variables that indicate the differences between the groups, occupation change group, same occupation turnover group, no turnover group. As a variable representing differences, it was classified into psychological variables, job-related variables, and career-related variables to investigate which characteristic variables represent differences between the occupation change group and other groups. For the study, a survey was conducted on male and female occupational workers in the early stage of their careers, divided into three groups according to the difference in career pursuit: occupation change group, same occupation turnover group, no turnover group, and data were collected from 1,002 people except for insincere responses. The results obtained through this study are as follows. First, the variables that differed between the occupation change group and no turnover group are as follows. For psychological variables, openness to experience, extroversion, growth needs, risk-taking tendency, and career-related variables were derived from protein career orientation and occupational identity. Second, the variables that differed between the occupation change group and the same occupation turnover group are as follows. The psychological variables were extroversion and risk-taking, and career-related variables were protein career orientation. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the protean career orientation, which is the value that he or she individuals pursues with the initiative in extroversion, risk sensitivity, and career when changing occupation. Based on the above results, the significance, limitations and suggestions of this study were discussed.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Cho, J., & Tak, J. (2021). Comparison of Psychological, Job and Career Characteristics between Groups according to Career Pursuit Differences: Focusing on occupation change group, same occupation turnover group, no turnover group. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 34(4), 563–599.
Empirical Articles


Ahn, J., Dik, B. J. & Hornback, R. (2017). The experience of career change driven by a sense of calling: An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Journal of vocational behavior, 102, 48-62.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Andrews, J. & Smith, D. C. (1996). In search of the marketing imagination: Factors affecting the creativity of marketing programs for mature products. Journal of Marketing Research, 33(2), 174-187.

Arthur, M. B., Hall, D. T., & Lawrence, B. S. (1989). Generating new directions in career theory: The case for a transdisciplinary approach. Handbook of career theory, 7-25.

Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performence in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of business venturing, 2(1), 79-93.

Blau, G. (2000). Job, organizational and professional context antecedents as predictors of intent for interrole work transitions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(3), 330-345.

Briscoe, J. P., and Hall, D. T. (2006) “The interplay ofboundayless and protean careers: Combinations and implications”. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 4-18.

Brown, A., Bimrose, J., Barnes, S. A. & Hughes, D. (2012). The role of career adaptabilities for mid-career changers. Journal of vocational behavior, 80(3), 754-761.

Caldwell, D. F. & O'Reilly III, C. A. (1990). Measuring person-job fit with a profile-comparison process. Journal of applied psychology, 75(6), 648.

Carless, S. A. (2005). Person–job fit versus person-organization fit as predictors of organizational attraction and job acceptance intentions: A longitudinal study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(3), 411-429.|

Carless, S., A. & Arnup, J. L.(2011). A longitudinal study of the determinants and outcomes of career change, In Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(1), 80-91.

Cho, S. M. (2017). Effects of food enterprise’s internal marketing activities on the intention of employees ‘self-efficiency, career enthusiasm and career change: Based on a chain chinese restaurants. (Chungwoon Graduate School).

Choi, J. S. (2014). An autoethnography of a former elite athlete’s identity change during the career transition. Anthropology of Education, 17(1), 63-102. doi:10.17318/jae.2014.17.1.002

Choi, M. O. (2004). The effects of person- environment fits on various person's attitude and behavior: The focus on interaction effects. (Kwangwoon Graduate School).

Choi, M. O., & Yoo, T. Y. (2005). The effects of person-organization, person-job, and person- supervisor fit on organization commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention: The focus on interaction effects among three types of fit. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 18(1), 139-162.

Choi, Y. J. (2014). Factors related to intention for career change of graduate students at a university's school of public health. (Yonsei Graduate School).

Choi, Y. M., & Kil, H. J. (2012). An exploratory study on career transition determinants using logistic regression analysis. The Journal of Vocational Education Research, 31(2), 1-21.

Cohen, A. (1991). Career stage as a moderator of the relationships between organizational commitment and its outcomes: A meta analysis. Journal of occupational psychology, 64(3), 253-268.

Costa, P. T., Jr. & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory(NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

Cotton, J. L. & Tuttle, J. M. (1986). Employee turnover: A meta-analysis and review with implications for research. Academy of management Review, 11(1), 55-70.

Doering, M. M. & Rhodes, S. R. (1989). Changing careers: A qualitative study. The Career Development Quarterly, 37(4), 316-333.

Edwards, J. R. (1991). Person-job fit: A conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique. International review of industrial & organizational psychology, 6, 283-357.

Goldberg, L. R. (1981). Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons. Review of personality and social psychology, 2(1), 141-165.

Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-band with, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several Five-Factor models. Personality Psychology in Europe, 7, 7-28.

Goodwin, R. E., Groth, M. & Frenkel, S. J. (2011). Relationships between emotional labor, job performance, and turnover. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 538-548.

Green, L., Hemmings, B. & Green, A. (2007). Career change and motivation: A matter of balance. Australian Journal of Career Development, 16(1), 20-27.

Greenhaus, J. H., Gallanan, G. A. & Godshalk, V. M. (2010). The middle and late career stages. In Greenhaus, J. H., Gallanan, G. A., & Godshalk, V. M(Eds.), Career management (230-259). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication, Inc.

Greenhaus, J. H., Gallanan, G. A. & Godshalk, V. M. (2000). Career management 3rd ed, Texas: Dryden Press(Tak, J. K. translation, Career management, Seoul: Sigmapress, 2002).

Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W. & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the next millennium. Journal of management, 26(3), 463-488.

Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational behavior and human performance, 16(2), 250-279.

Hall, D. T.(1996). Protean Careers of the 21st Century. Academy of Management Executive, 10(96), 8-16.

Hennekam, S. & Bennett, D. (2016). Involuntary career transition and identity within the artist population. Personnel Review, 45(6), 1114-1131.

Hess, N., Jepsen, D. M. & Dries, N. (2012). Career and employer change in the age of the ‘boundaryless’ career. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(2), 280-288.

Higgins, M. C. (2001). Changing careers: The effects of social context. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 595-5618.

Hwang, K. H. (2019). Determinants of job mobility and wage effects of youth. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 22(1),137-172. doi: 10.36907/krivet. 2019.22.1.137

Hwang, K. H. (2016). Study on influence of personality characteristics of optometrist on organizational citizenship behaviors and turnover intention. (Dongshin University).

Hunter, C. (2016). Exploring career change through the lens of the intelligent career framework.

Jung, S. H., & Kim, C. K. (2017). A study on young workers in relationship with big-five personality factors and employment outcomes. Social Welfare Policy and Practice, 3(1), 37-75. Retrieved from

Jung, Y. J., Kim, S. R., & Im, T. B. (2018). Risk Aversion and Sorting into the Public Sector: Evidence from South Korea. Korean Journal of Public Administration, 56(1), 183~211.

Kanchier, C., & Unruh, W. R. (1989a). Factors influencing career change. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 12(4), 309-321.

Kanchier, C. & Unruh, W. R. (1989b). Occupational Change: What Makes Changers Different?. Journal of Career development, 15(3), 174-187.

Keum, M. H. (2015). A qualitative case study on career transition experiences: From employee to founder. (Yonsei Graduate School). T13762780

Khapova, S. N., Arthur, M. B., Wilderom, C. P. & Svensson, J. S. (2007). Professional identity as the key to career change intention. Career development international, 12(7), 584-595.

Kim, H. J. (2017). Structural model for career withdrawal intention of dental hygienist. (Nam Seoul University).

Kim, M. J. (2013) The effect of occupational status on the employees' intention of changing occupation in food service industry. Korean Management Consulting Review, 13(1), 141-162.

Kim, N. R., & Lee, K. H. (2016). The concept map on factors influencing women’s voluntary career change. Korean Journal of Counseling, 17(1), 227-248.

Korea Reaserch Institute for Vocational Education & Trainning (2002). (A) study on the korean vocational consciousness(Ⅱ). Seoul: Korea Reaserch Institute for Vocational Education & Trainning, 2002.

Kwon, N. Y., Oh, I. S. & Kim, M. S. (2019). Risk-taking orientation, conflict, and creativity: A multilevel perspective. Korean Academy of Management, 27(1), 55-71.

Lauver, K. J., & Kristof-Brown, A. (2001). Distinguishing between employees' perceptions of person-job and person-organization fit. Journal of vocational behavior, 59(3), 454-470.

Lawrence, B. S. (1980). The myth of the midlife crisis. Sloan Management Review, 21(4), 35-49.

Lee, B. C. (2014). Effects of job factors to job satisfaction and turnover intention of the hotel cooking employee: Focused on deluxe 1st class hotel. (Sejong Graduate School).

Lee, J. E., & Song, Y. S. (2016). How the career transition of single women with high competence turning point in their 30s: based on their identity change. Interdisciplinary Journal of Adult & Continuing Education, 19(2), 29-60. Retrieved from

Lee. K. E. (2008). Antecedents and outcomes

of career planning. Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 21(2), 783-803.

Lee, K. L. (2002). A Study on the Determinants of Voluntary Turnover: Focusing on Job embeddedness and ease of movement from the organization. (Sogang Graduate School).

Lee, S. H. (2007). A study on decisive elements for turnover intention and career change intention of employees in sports centers. (Dankook Graduate School).

Lee, S. H., Choi, C. H., & Shin, S. S.(2011). The influence of unemployed persons' demographics and big five personality factors on job-searching efficacy and career preparation behavior. Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling, 32(1), 85-102.

Lewis, J. & Thomas, K. (1987). Occupational change and career development amongst graduate engineers and scientists. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 15, 182-1196.

Liu, Y., Englar‐Carlson, M. & Minichiello, V. (2012). Midlife career transitions of men who are scientists and engineers: A narrative study. The Career development Quarterly, 60(3), 273-288.

London, M. (1983). Toward a theory of career motivation. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 620-630.

Maeil business news korea. (2019). Ten-year worker, average four turnover experiences...the reason is ‘low salary’,

Maertz, C. P. & Griffeth, R. W. (2004). Eight motivational forces and voluntary turnover: A theoretical synthesis with implications for research. Journal of Management, 30, 667-683.

Maertz Jr, C. P. & Kmitta, K. R. (2012). Integrating turnover reasons and shocks with turnover decision processes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(1), 26-38.

Masdonati, J., Fournier, G. & Lahrizi, I. Z. (2017). The Reasons behind a Career Change through Vocational Education and Training. International journal for research in vocational education and training, 4(3), 249-269.

McGinley, S. P. (2018). Shifting patterns: How satisfaction alters career change intentions, International journal of hospitality management, 74(-), 202-213.

McGinley, S., O’Neill, J., Damaske, S., & Mattila, A. S. (2014). A grounded theory approach to developing a career change model in hospitality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 38(-), 89-98.

Mobley, W. H. (1982). Employ turnover: Causes, consequences, and control. MT: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, New York.

Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R. & Moran, S. V. (2007). Managing cultural differences: global leadership for the 21st century 7th ed, Amsterdam; Boston.

Na, M. C. (2012). The relationship between the personality of the call center employee of a financial institution and the intention to turn over: Focusing on the mediating effect of job stress. (Korea Graduate School).

Neapolitan, J. (1980). Occupational change in mid-career: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 16, 212-225.

Neves, P., & Eisenberger, R. (2014). Perceived organizational support and risk taking. Journal of managerial psychology.

Nicholson, N., Soane, E., Fenton‐O'Creevy, M. & Willman, P. (2005). Personality and domain‐specific risk taking. Journal of Risk Research, 8(2), 157-176.

Oh, I. S. (2017). Multi-level study on radical creativity and incremental creativity: The effects of team members' characteristics and team process. (Hanyang University).

O'Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J. & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487-516.

Park, K. J. (2010). Analysis of causal model of career transitions in professional cycle racers. (Changwon National University).

Phillips, A. S., & Bedeian, A. G. (1994). Leader–follower exchange quality: The role of personal and interpersonal attributes. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 990-1001.

Porter, C., Woo, S. E. & Tak, J. K. (2016). Developing and validating short form protean and boundaryless career attitudes scales. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(1), 162-181.

Pummell, B., Harwood, C. & Lavallee, D. (2008). Jumping to the next level: A qualitative examination of within-career transition in adolescent event riders, Psychology of sport and exercise, 9(4), 427-447.

Rhodes, S. R. & Doering, M. (1983). An integrated model of career change. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 631-639.

Rhodes, S. R. & Doering, M. M. (1993). Intention to Change Careers: Determinants and Process, The career development quarterly, 42(1), 76-92.

Robertson, H. C. & Brott, P. E. (2013). Male Veterans' Perceptions of Midlife Career Transition and Life Satisfaction: A Study of Military Men Transitioning to the Teaching Profession. Adultspan Journal, 12(2), 6-79.

Senter, J. L. & Martin, J. E. (2007). Factors affecting the turnover of different groups of part-time workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71(1), 45-68.

Shalley, C. E., Gilson, L. L. & Blum, T. C. (2009). “Interactive effects of growth need strength, work context, and job complexity on self-reported creative performance”. Academy of Management Journal, 52(3), 489-505.

Smith, D. R., Holtom, B. C. & Mitchell, T. R. (2011). Enhancing precision in the prediction of voluntary turnover and retirement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(1), 290-302.

Song, E. J., Jung, S. W., & Lee, H. J. (2018). Can Perceived Organizational Learning Support Buffer the Association Between Growth Needs and Career Turnover Intention among Social Workers. Journal of Korean social welfare administration, 20(2), 29-56.

Spell, H. B., Eby, L. T. & Vandenberg, R. J. (2014). Developmental climate: A cross-level analysis of voluntary turnover and job performance. Journal of vocational behavior, 84(3), 283-292.

Steers, R. M. & Spencer, D. G. (1977). The role of achievement motivation in job design. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 472-488.

Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers; an introduction to vocational development.

Tak, J. K. (2007). Antecedents of person-job fit and its relation to intention to leave: Based on a sample of newcomers. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 20(4), 459-473.

Tak, J. K., Lee, D. H., Park, J. H., Kim, H. H., & Jung, B. S. (2008). A Study on Work and Environmental Variables Explaining Newcomers' Turnover Intentions. The Korean journal of applied statistics, 21(3), 469-484.

Terjesen, S. & Sullivan. S. E. (2011). The role of developmental relationships in the transition to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study and agenda for future research. Career development international, 16(5), 482-506.

Timmerman, T. A. (2006). Predicting turnover with broad and narrow personality traits. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14(4), 392-399.


Tokar, D. M., Fischer, A. R. & Subich, L. M. (1998). Personality and vocational behavior: A selective review of the literature, 1993-1997. Journal of vocational behavior, 53(2), 115-153.

Vinson, G. A., Connelly, B. S. & Ones, D. S. (2007). Relationships between personality and organization switching: Implications for utility estimates. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15(1), 118-133.

Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W. & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Minnesota Studies on Vocational Rehabilitation, 22, Minneapolis, MN: Industrial Relations Center, Work Adjustment Project, University of Minnesota.

Yang, A. N. , & Jyung, C. Y. (2011). A study on job transition of veterans. The Journal of Career Education Research, 24(2), 1-24.

Yoo, H. J., Yoo, T. Y., Chung, T. I., Bae, S. H., & Jo, A. R. (2014). Scale development of occupational identity and testing model of antecedents and outcome variables of occupational Identity. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 27(4), 617-645.

Yoo, T. Y., Lee, K. B., & Ashton, M. C. (2004). Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the HEXACO Personality Inventory. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 18(3), 61-75.

Yoon, H. N., & Tak, J. K. (2006). Antecedent variables of subjective career success: A moderating effect of gender difference. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 19(3), 325-347.

Zimmerman, R. D. (2008). Understanding the impact of personality traits on individuals turnover decisions: a meta analytic path model. Personnel psychology, 61(2), 309-348.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>