Effects of reinforcement delay and rule explicitness on work performance

Main Article Content

Minji Kang
Kyehoon Lee
Shezeen Oah


This study examined the effects of reinforcement delay and rule explicitness on performance. A 2 (immediate vs. delayed reinforcement) x 2 (explicit vs. implicit rule) factorial design was used. Eighty college students were recruited as participants and were randomly assigned to the four experimental groups. They performed a simulated work task and the dependent variable was the number of the work task correctly completed. Results indicated that in the delayed reinforcement condition, performance for the group who was given an explicit rule was higher than that for the group who was given an implicit rule. In the immediate reinforcement condition, however, performance for both groups was comparable.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Kang, M., Lee, K., & Oah, S. (2013). Effects of reinforcement delay and rule explicitness on work performance. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 26(4), 489–505. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v26i4.489-505
Empirical Articles


김영주, 유태용 (2009). 개인특성이 조직 내 사회적 네트워크 크기에 미치는 영향과 직무수행에 대한 사회적 네트워크 크기와 강도의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 22(1), 27-51.

김호균 (2007). 조직신뢰, 상사신뢰와 조직효과성. 한국행정학보, 41(2), 69-94.

문광수, 이제희, 오세진 (2014). 개인주의-집합주의 성향과 성과급 형태가 임금만족에 미치는 효과. 한국심리학회지: 문화 및 사회문제, 20(3), 235-262.

박계홍, 송광영 (2005). 윤리경영과 조직유효성과의 관계에 있어서 신뢰의 역할. 대한경영학회지, 49, 649-680.

서재현 (2005). 의사결정참여 및 직업불안정성이 조직후원인식, 조직신뢰 및 역할 내 행동에 미치는 영향. 인사·조직연구, 13(1), 173-198.

양회창 (2002). 조직구성원의 개인주의-집합주의 성향이 두뇌활용에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구. 아주대학교 석사학위논문.

유지운, 탁진국 (2012). 신입사원의 주도적 성격이 정보추구행동을 통해 조직사회화에 미치는 영향이 팀개방성과 리더행동의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 25(4), 749-773.

윤영재 (2014). 집단주의/개인주의 가치지향성과 개인적/집합적 자기 표상이 집단 창의성에 미치는 영향. 성균관대학교 대학원 석사학위논문.

이재훈, 최익봉 (2004). 조직공정성, 신뢰, 조직유효성간의 관련성에 관한 연구. 인사·조직연구, 12(1), 93-132.

조아름, 유태용 (2014). 침묵동기에 대한 고찰: 종업원 침묵행동과 상사지원인식, 절차공정성인식 및 친교욕구의 관계에서 침묵동기의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(2), 291-315.

조영호 (2002). 조직구성원의 개인주의-집합주의 성향과 심리적 계약에 관한 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 15(3), 89-111.

조윤형, 최우재 (2010). 조직구성원들의 가치성향이 조직시민행동에 미치는 영향: 조직신뢰의 매개효과. 인적자원관리연구, 17(4), 403-429.

최재욱 (2013). 신뢰성과 조직신뢰가 조직유효성에 미치는 영향. 동양대학교 박사학위논문.

한태영 (2008). 적응수행에 대한 직무탈진, 심리적 집합주의 및 성격의 상호작용 효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 21(4), 631- 655.

황애영, 탁진국 (2011). 주도성이 주관적 경력성공에 미치는 영향: 프로틴(protean) 경력지향의 매개효과를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 24(2), 409-428.

Abraham., B. (2000). Organizational cynicism: bases and consequences. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126(3), 269-292.

Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of organizational Behavior, 23(3), 267- 285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.138

Avery, D. R., & Quifiones, M. A. (2002). Disentangling the effects of voice: the incremental roles of opportunity, behavior, and instrumentality in predicting procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), 81- 86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.1.81

Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The Proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizatioanl Behavior, 14, 103-118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140202

Chiaburu, D. S., Peng, A. C., Oh, I. S., Banks, G. C., & Lomeli, L. C. (2013). Antecedents and consequences of employee organizational cynicism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83, 181-197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2013.03.007

Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non‐fulfilment. Journal of occupational psychology, 53(1), 39-52. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1980.tb00005.x

Costa, P., Zonderman, A., McCrae, R., & Williams, R. (1986). Cynicism and Paranoid alienation in the Cook and Medley HO scale. Psychosomatic Midecine, 48, 283-285. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00006842-198603000-00014

Cox, T. H., Lobel, S. A., & McLeod, P. L. (1991). Effects of ethnic group cultural differences on cooperative and competitive behavior on a group task. Academy of Management Journal, 34(4), 827-847.

Crant, J. M. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of management, 26(3), 435-462. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600304

Crant, J. M., Kim, T. Y., & Wang, J. (2011). Dispositional antecedents of demonstration and usefulness of voice behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26, 285-297. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-010-9197-y

Dean, J. W., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R. (1998). Organizational Cynicism. Academy of Management Review, 23(2), 341-352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.533230

Dutton, J. E., & Ashford, S. J. (1993). Selling issues to top management. Academy of management review, 18(3), 397-428. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1993.9309035145

Edmondson, A. C. (1996). Learning from mistakes is easier said than done: Group and organizational influences on the detection and correction of human error. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 32(1), 5-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886396321001

Finkelstein, M. A. (2012). Individualism/collectivism and organizational citizenship behavior: An integrative framework. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 40(10), 1633-1643.

Farndale, E., Van Ruiten, J., Kelliher, C., & Hailey, V. (2011). The influence of perceived employee voice on organizational commitment: An exchange perspective. Human Resource Management, 50(1), 113-129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.20404

Gao, L., Janssen, O., & Shi, K. (2011). Leader trust and employee voice: The moderating role of empowering leader behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(4), 787-798. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.05.015

Greenglass, E. R., & Julkunen, J. (1989). Construct validity and sex differences in Cook-Medley hostility. Personality and Individual differences, 10(2), 209-218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(89)90206-7

Gorden, W. I. (1988). Range of Employee Voice. Employee Responsibility and Right Journal, 1(4), 283-299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01556937

Hart, K. E., & Hope, C. W. (2004). Cynical hostility and the psychosocial vulnerability model of disease risk: confouunding effects of neuroticism (negative affectivity) bias. Personality and Individual Differences. 36, 1571- 1583. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.06.007

Hirchman, A. O. (2005). 떠날 것인가 남을 것인가: 기업, 조직 및 국가의 퇴보에 대한 반응[Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responsibility to decline in firms, organizations and states]. (강명구 역). 경기도: 나남출판. (원전은 1970에 출판).

Hochwarter, W. A., James, M., Johnson, D., & Ferris, G. R. (2004). The interactive effects of politics perceptions and trait cynicism on work outcomes. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10(4), 44-57. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/107179190401000404

Hui, C. H., & Yee, C. (1999). The Impact of psychological collectivism and work group atmosphere on chinese employee’s job satisfaction. Applied Psychology :An International Review, 48(2), 175-185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.1999.tb00056.x

Hung, H. K., Yeh, R. S., & Shih, H. Y. (2012). Voice behavior and performance ratings: the role of political skill. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 442-450. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.07.002

Jackson, C. L., Colquitt, J. A., Wesson, M. J., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2006). Psychological collectivism: a measurement validation and linkage to group member performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 884-899. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.884

Kanter, D., & Mirvis, P. (1989). The cynical americans, San Franisco: Jossey-Bass.

LePine, J. A. & Van Dyne, L. (1998). Predicting voice behavior in work group. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(6), 853-868. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.6.853

Leung, K., & van de Vijver, F. J. (2008). Strategies for Strengthening Causal Inferences in Cross Cultural Research The Consilience Approach. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 8(2), 145-169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1470595808091788

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of management review, 20(3), 709-734. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1995.9508080335

Maynes, T. D. & Podsakoff, P. M. (2013). Speaking more broadly: An examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 1-26.

Morrison, E. W. (2011). Empioyee Voice Behavior: Integration and derection for future research. Journal of Management Annual, 5(1), 373-412.

Nemeth, C. J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological review, 93(1), 23-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.93.1.23

Ng, T. W., & Feldman, D. C. (2012). Employee voice behavior: A meta analytic test of the conservation of resources framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(2), 216-234. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.754

Parker, S. K., & Collins, C. G. (2010). Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors. Journal of Management, 36(3), 633-662. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308321554

Ristig, K. (2008). An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship between Trust, Voice, and Proactive Personality. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences, 14, 141-148

Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of management review, 23(3), 393-404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.926617

Rusbult, C. E., Farrell, D., Rogers, G., & Mainous Ⅲ., A. G. (1988). Impact of exchange variables on Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect: An integrative model of respoinses to declining job satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 31(3), 599-627.

Smith, T. W., Pope, K., Sanders, J. D., Allred, K. D., & O’Keeffe, J. L. (1988). Cynical hostility at home and work: Psychosocial vulnerability across domains. Journal of research in personality, 22, 525-548. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(88)90008-6

Thomas. W. H. NG., Eby, L. T., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of objective and subjective career success: A meta‐analysis. Personnel psychology, 58(2), 367-408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00515.x

Triandis, H. C., Leung. K., Villareal, M. J., & Clack, F. L. (1985). Allocentric and idiocentric tendencies: convergent and discriminant validation. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 395-415. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(85)90008-X

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1359-1392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00384

Van Dyne, L & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra role-behavior: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 108-119.

Withey, M. J., & Cooper, W. H. (1989). Predicting exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34(4), 521-539. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2393565

Whiting, S. W., Maynes, T. D., Podsakoff, N. P., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2012). Effects of message, source, and context on evaluations of employee voice behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 159-182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024871

Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management journal, 44(4), 682-696.

Most read articles by the same author(s)