Validation of the time perspective inventory Based on Korean employees

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Jinkook Tak
Sungbae Jang
Suyeon Kim
Byungkeol Lee
Dongyup Nam


The purpose of this study was to validate the Korean version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. With 56 items of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory(ZTPI) adapted through translation and back-translation, exploratory factor analyses were conducted on the sample of 300 Korean employees. Results of exploratory factor analyses showed that five factors with 25 items were obtained. The Inventory was composed of past positive 6 items, past negative 3 items, present hedonistic 4 items, present fatalistic 5 items, and future 7 items. For further validation of the scale, data were obtained from 204 Korean employees. The result of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the 5 factor model was adequate. Also results of correlational analyses showed that the five factors were generally significantly correlated with various criteria such as life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression, confirming criterion-related validity. Finally, implications and limitations of the study were discussed.


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Tak, J., Jang, S., Kim, S., Lee, B., & Nam, D. (2016). Validation of the time perspective inventory: Based on Korean employees. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 29(3), 367–383.
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