Telework as a Double-Edged Sword: The Moderating Effects of Work-Home Boundary Characteristics

Main Article Content

Seunghee Lee
HyungIn Park


Due to the global spread of infectious diseases, telework has become increasingly prevalent. However, the reported results have been mixed regarding the effectiveness of telework. This study examined whether the relationship between telework and work-family conflict would be changed by the permeability and flexibility of the border around work. Study 1 validated Clark’s (2002) scales of permeability and flexibility characteristics of each work-family border. The scales were first translated into Korean, then back-translated into English to examine item-consistency of the scales. The results of exploratory factor analyses based on 219 Korean working adults showed that the border around work and the border around family each consisted of two factors: permeability and flexibility. Additionally, correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine the nomological network of the scales using the theoretically relevant predictors and criteria. Study 2 examined border characteristics around work to investigate whether permeability and flexibility moderates the relationship between telework and work-family conflict. A survey was conducted on 250 teleworking Korean adults which showed that flexibility did not moderate the relationship between telework and work-interfering-family. However, the positive relationship between telework and family-interfering-work increased when flexibility was low. This study suggests that organizations should provide flexibility in the border around work, to alleviate the negative impact of work-family conflict on teleworkers during the post COVID-19 period.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Lee, S., & Park, H. (2022). Telework as a Double-Edged Sword:: The Moderating Effects of Work-Home Boundary Characteristics. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 35(3), 415–446.
Empirical Articles


고용노동부 (2021a, 12, 16). 2021년 고용영향평가 결과발표회 개최.

고용노동부 (2021b, 12, 30). 우리 시도의 일․생활 균형 수준은? 2020년 기준 지역별 일․생활 균형 지수 발표.

김준곤 (1988). 직무만족의 측정과 관련변인들의 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 1(1), 55-78.

박노윤 (2010). 직무요구, 직무통제, 직무불안정성 및 사회적 지원이 은행원의 직무만족에 미치는 영향. 경영관리연구, 3(2), 1-24.

박량희, 유태용 (2007). 개인의 성격, 직무 요구, 직무 통제가 직무 스트레스에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 20(1), 1-20.

서정모, 김경수, 김광용 (2020). 유연근무제가 직무만족과 직무몰입에 미치는 영향. 호텔경영학연구, 29(2), 199-207.

양정윤 (2020). 유연근무제가 직무만족과 조직시민행동에 미치는 영향. 호텔경영학연구, 29(4), 9-15.

오삼일, 이종하 (2022). 팬데믹 이후 재택근무 확산과 경기완충 효과. 한국은행, BOK 이슈노트 No.2022-4, 1-13.에서 2022, 7, 15 자료 얻음.

유성경, 홍세희, 박지아, 김수정 (2012). 한국 여성의 일-가족 갈등 척도 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 여성, 17(1), 1-29.

이동렬 (1995). 직장-가정갈등이 구성원의 생활만족에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구. 서울대학교 일반대학원 석사학위논문.

이상훈, 정보영 (2021). 코로나19와 일터환경: 재택근무에 대한 국내언론보도기사 분석. 한국인력개발학회, 23(1), 145-175.

조혜인 (2021). 포스트 코로나 시대 중장년의 비대면 교육 경험을 통한 인식 변화와 사회참여 역할의 실천과제. 서울시50플러스재단, 12.

통계청 (2020). 2020년 8월 경제활동인구조사 근로형태별 부가조사 결과.

통계청 (2021). 2021년 8월 경제활동인구조사 근로형태별 부가조사 결과.

허창구, 신강현, 양수현 (2010). 직장-가정 갈등이 직무탈진 및 가정만족에 미치는 영향: 성차에 따른 다집단 분석. 한국심리학회지: 여성, 15(1), 103-128.

Aamodt, M. G. (2015). Industrial/organizational psychology: An applied approach (8th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage Publications, Inc.

Allen, T. D., French, K. A., Dumani, S., & Shockley, K. M. (2020). A cross-national meta-analytic examination of predictors and outcomes associated with work–family conflict. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(6), 539-576.

Allen, T. D., Golden, T. D., & Shockley, K. M. (2015). How effective is telecommuting? Assessing the status of our scientific findings. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(2), 40-68.

Allen, T. D., Johnson, R. C., Kiburz, K. M., & Shockley, K. M. (2013). Work-family conflict and flexible work arrangements: Deconstructing flexibility. Personnel Psychology, 66(2), 345-376.

Allen, T. D., Merlo, K., Lawrence, R. C., Slutsky, J., & Gray, C. E. (2021). Boundary management and work-nonwork balance while working from home. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 70(1), 60-84.

Amstad, F. T., Meier, L. L., Fasel, U., Elfering, A., & Semmer, N. K. (2011). A meta-analysis of work-family conflict and various outcomes with a special emphasis on cross-domain versus matching-domain relations. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(2), 151-169.

Andel, S. A., Shen, W., & Arvan, M. L. (2021). Depending on your own kindness: The moderating role of self-compassion on the within-person consequences of work loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 26(4), 276-290.

Andrade, C., & Petiz Lousã, E. (2021). Telework and Work–Family Conflict during COVID-19 Lockdown in Portugal: The Influence of Job-Related Factors. Administrative Sciences, 11(3), 1-14.

Bailey, D. E., & Kurland, N. B. (2002). A review of telework research: Findings, new directions and lessons for the study of modern work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(SpecIssue), 383-400.

Baltes, B. B., Briggs, T. E., Huff, J. W., Wright, J. A., & Neuman, G. A. (1999). Flexible and compressed workweek schedules: A meta-analysis of their effects on work-related criteria. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(4), 496-513.

Becker, T. E., Atinc, G., Breaugh, J. A., Carlson, K. D., Edwards, J. R., & Spector, P. E. (2016). Statistical control in correlational studies: 10 essential recommendations for organizational researchers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(2), 157-167.

Bowling, N. A., & Hammond, G. D. (2008). A meta-analytic examination of the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(1), 63-77.

Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross- cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216.

Bulger, C. A., Matthews, R. A., & Hoffman, M. E. (2007). Work and personal life boundary management: Boundary strength, work/personal life balance, and the segmentation-integration continuum. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(4), 365-375.

Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, G. D., & Klesh, J. R. (1979). The Michigan organizational assessment questionnaire. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Carlson, D. S., Kacmar, K. M., Wayne, J. H., & Grzywacz, J. G. (2006). Measuring the positive side of the work-family interface: Development and validation of a work-family enrichment scale. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68(1), 131-164.

Charalampous, M., Grant, C. A., Tramontano, C., & Michailidis, E. (2019). Systematically reviewing remote e-workers’ well-being at work: A multidimensional approach. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(1), 51-73.

Chong, S., Huang, Y., & Chang, C.-H. (2020). Supporting interdependent telework employees: A moderated-mediation model linking daily COVID-19 task setbacks to next-day work withdrawal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(12), 1408-1422.

Cinamon, R. G., & Rich, Y. (2002). Profiles of attribution of importance to life roles and their implications for the work-family conflict. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(2), 212-220.

Clark, S. C. (2000). Work/family border theory: A new theory of work/family balance. Human Relations, 53(6), 747-770.

Clark, S. C. (2002). Communicating across the work/home border. Community, Work & Family, 5(1), 23-48.

Cooke, R. A., & Rousseau, D. M. (1984). Stress and strain from family roles and work-role expectations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 252-260.ttps://

Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281-302.

Daniel, S., & Sonnentag, S. (2016). Crossing the borders: The relationship between boundary management, work–family enrichment and job satisfaction. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(4), 407-426.

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512.

Di Martino, V., & Wirth, L. (1990). Telework: New Way of Working and Living. International Labour Review, 129(5), 529-554.

Eagle, B. W., Miles, E. W., & Icenogle, M. L. (1997). Interrole conflicts and the permeability of work and family domains: Are there gender differences? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(2), 168-184.

Forbes. (2021, October 18). The Secret To A Successful Hybrid Office.

Frone, M. R., Rusell, M., & Cooper, M. L. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: Testing a model of the work-family interface. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(1), 65-78.

Gajendran, R. S., & Harrison, D. A. (2007). The good, the bad, and theunknown about telecommuting: Meta-analysis of psychological mediatorsand individual consequences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1524-1541.

Golden, T. D. (2006). The role of relationships in understanding telecommuter satisfaction. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(3), 319-340.

Golden, T. D., Veiga, J. F., & Simsek, Z. (2006). Telecommuting's differential impact on work-family conflict: Is there no place like home? Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), 1340-1350.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources and conflict between work and family roles. The Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 76-88.

Greenhaus, J. H., & Powell, G. N. (2006). When work and family are allies: A theory of work-family enrichment. The Academy of Management Review, 31(1), 72-92.

Halbesleben, J. R. B., Zellars, K. L., Carlson, D. S., Perrewé, P. L., & Rotondo, D. (2010). The moderating effect of work-linked couple relationships and work-family integration on the spouse instrumental support-emotional exhaustion relationship. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4), 371-387.

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

Higgins, C. A., & Duxbury, L. E. (1992). Work-family conflict: A comparison of dual-career and traditional-career men. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(4), 389-411.

Iaffaldano, M. T., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 97(2), 251-273.

Judge, T. A., Weiss, H. M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Hulin, C. L. (2017). Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 356-374.

Karasek Jr., R. A. (1979). Job demands, job decision latitude, and mental strain: implications for job redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(2), 285-308.

Ker, D., Montagnier, P., & Spiezia, V. (2021). Measuring telework in the COVID-19 pandemic. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 314.

Kopelman, R. E., Greenhaus, J. H., & Connolly, T. F. (1983). A model of work, family, and interrole conflict: A construct validation study. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 32(2), 198-215.

Kreiner, G. E. (2006). Consequences of Work-Home Segmentation or Integration: A Person-Environment Fit Perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 485-507.

Leroy, S., Schmidt, A. M., & Madjar, N. (2021). Working from home during COVID-19: A study of the interruption landscape. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(10), 1448-1465.

Leung, L., & Zhang, R. (2017). Mapping ICT use at home and telecommuting practices: A perspective from work/family border theory. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 385-396.

Lin, Q. (2018). The Relationship Between Job Overload And Job Involvement And Work Family Balance. [Master’s Thesis]. Kyunghee University.

Liu, T., Zeng, X., Chen, M., & Lan, T. (2019). The harder you work, the higher your satisfaction with life? The influence of police work engagement on life satisfaction: A moderated mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(826), 1-11.

Martin, B. H., & MacDonnell, R. (2012). Is telework effective for organizations?: A meta-analysis of empirical research on perceptions of telework and organizational outcomes. Management Research Review, 35(7), 602-616.

Masuda, A. D., Poelmans, S. A. Y., Allen, T. D., Spector, P. E., Lapierre, L. M., Cooper, C. L., Abarca, N., Brough, P., Ferreiro, P., Fraile, G., Lu, L., Lu, C.‐Q., Siu, O. L., O'Driscoll, M. P., Simoni, A. S., Shima, S., & Moreno Velazquez, I. (2012). Flexible work arrangements availability and their relationship with work‐to‐family conflict, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: A comparison of three country clusters. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 61(1), 1-29.

McNall, L. A., Masuda, A. D., & Nicklin, J. M. (2009). Flexible work arrangements, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions: The mediating role of work-to-family enrichment. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 144(1), 61-81.

Media Site. (2021, April 06). New National Survey: Video Conferencing’s Role in Enterprise Now and in a Post-COVID World.

Menezes, L. M., & Kelliher, C. (2017). Flexible Working, Individual Performance, and Employee Attitudes: Comparing Formal and Informal Arrangements. Human Resource Management, 56(6), 1051-1070.

Michel, J. S., Mitchelson, J. K., Kotrba, L. M., LeBreton, J. M., & Baltes, B. B. (2009). A comparative test of work-family conflict models and critical examination of work-family linkages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(2), 199-218.

Paulhus, D. L., Robins, R. W., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Tracy, J. L. (2004). Two replicable suppressor situations in personality research. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(2), 303-328.

Peeters, M. C. W., Montgomery, A. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2005). Balancing work and home: how job and home demands are related to burnout. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 43-61.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879-903.

Putnam, L. L., Myers, K. K., & Gailliard, B. M. (2014). Examining the tensions in workplace flexibility and exploring options for new directions. Human Relations, 67(4), 413-440.

Rubenstein, A. L., Peltokorpi, V., & Allen, D. G. (2020). Work-home and home-work conflict and voluntary turnover: A conservation of resources explanation for contrasting moderation effects of on- and off-the-job embeddedness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 119, 1-17.

Shao, Y., Fang, Y., Wang, M., Chang, C.-H., & Wang, L. (2021). Making daily decisions to work from home or to work in the office: The impacts of daily work- and COVID-related stressors on next-day work location. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(6), 825-838.

Shockley, K. M., & Singla, N. (2011). Reconsidering work-family interactions and satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 37(3), 861-886.

Steelcase (2021). Changing Expectations and the Future of Work: Insights from the pandemic to create a better work experience. In Steelcase Global Report.

Sumer, H. C., & Knight, P. A. (2001). How do people with different attachment styles balance work and family? A personality perspective on work-family linkage. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 653-663.

Vartiainen, M. Telework and Remote Work. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Yang, J., Zhang, Y., Shen, C., Liu, S., & Zhang, S. (2019). Work-family segmentation preferences and work-family conflict: Mediating effect of work-related ICT use at home and the multilevel moderating effect of group segmentation norms. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(834).

Yang, N., Chen, C., Choi, J., & Zou, Y. (2000). Sources of work‐family conflict: A Sino-U.S. comparison of the effects of work and family demands. Academy of Management Journal, 43(1), 113-123.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>