Main Article Content
This study conducted meta-analyses of 26 Korean studies in order to examine the relationships of person-supervisor (P-S) fit with job attitudes and behaviors. Job attitudes included job satisfaction (k = 11), affective organizational commitment (k = 10), and turnover intention (k = 8). Work behaviors included organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs, k = 11). The results showed strong positive relationships of P-S fit with job satisfaction, affective commitment, and OCBs. Also, P-S fit had a moderate negative relationship with turnover intention. Survey methods (online versus paper), publication sources, and sub-dimensions of outcome measurements were hypothesized as moderators with specific directions. Types of organization (private versus public) and types of industry (service versus non-service) were explored as moderators. The results indicated that the effect sizes were larger in online surveys (in case of OCBs) and journal publications than in paper surveys and dissertations, respectively. Regarding measurement dimensions, P-S fit showed stronger relationships with OCB-I than with OCB-O. We found that types of organization and types of industry could also function as moderators. This study contributes to the literature on P-S fit, which has been paid less attention to than other dimensions of person-environment fit, by demonstrating its importance. Limitations of the current study, future research directions, and implications of the results were further discussed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ahn, J. D., & Lee, D. Y. (2019). The relationship between person-environment fit and job-related variables: Meta-analysis. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 32(2), 107-134. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i2.107-134
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5), 888-918.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.84.5.888
Ashkanasy, N. M., & O`Connor, C. (1997). Value Congruence in Leader-Member Exchange. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(5), 647-662. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224549709595486
Astakhova, M. N. (2016). Explaining the effects of perceived person-supervisor fit and person- organization fit on organizational commitment in the U.S. and Japan. Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 956-963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.08.039
Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current Theories, Research, and Future Directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421-449.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163621
Carpenter, C. N., & Berry, M. C. (2013). A meta-analytic comparison of self-reported and other-reported organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 35(3), 547-574.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1909
*Chang, D. Y., & Jung, S. C. (2017). The effects of person-organization fit and person-supervisor fit on turnover intention: Mediation effects of affective commitment. Catholic Journal of Social Science, 33, 35-60.
Chang, S. J., Koh, S. B., Kang, D. M., Kim, S. A., Kang, M. G., Lee, C. G., Chung, J. J., Cho, J. J., Son, M., Chae, C. H., Kim, J. W., Kim, J. I., Kim, H. S., Roh, S. C., Park, J. B., Woo, J. M., Kim, S. Y., Kim, J. Y., Ha, M., ... & Son, D. K. (2005). Developing an occupational stress scale for Korean employees. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 17(4), 297-317.
Choi, D., Oh, I. S., & Colbert, A. E. (2015). Understanding organizational commitment: A meta-analytic examination of the roles of the five-factor model of personality and culture. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(5), 1542- 1567. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000014
*Choi, M. O., & Yoo, T. Y. (2005). The effects of person-organization, person-job, and person-supervisor fit on organization commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intention: The focus on interaction effects among three types of fit. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 18(1), 139-162.
*Chung, M. J. (2017). The effects of person-environment fit on organizational citizenship behavior of the airline flight attendants: Focusing on the mediating effects of self-esteem. Journal of Korea Service Management Society, 18(2), 51-70. https://doi.org/10.15706/jksms.2017.18.2.003
Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155
De Beuvkrlsrt, A. D., & Lievens, F. (2008). Measurement equivalence of paper-and-pencil and internet organisational surveys: A large scale examination in 16 countries. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 58(2), 336-361.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00350.x
Deluga, R. J. (1994). Supervisor trust building, leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67(4), 315-326. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1994.tb00570.x
Dunham, R. B., Grube, J. A., & Castaneda, M. B. (1994). Organizational commitment: The utility of an integrative definition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(3), 370-380.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.3.370
Edwards, J. A., & Billsberry, J. (2010). Testing a multidimensional theory of person-environment fit. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(4), 476-493.
Edwards, J. R., Caplan, R. D., & Van Harrison, R. (1998). Person-environment fit theory: Conceptual foundations, empirical evidence, and directions for future research. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of organizational stress (pp. 28-67). Oxford University Press.
Eisenberger, R., Karagonlar, G., Stinglhamber, F., Neves, P., Becker, T. E., Gonzalez-Morales, M. G., & Steiger-Mueller, M. (2010). Leader- member exchange and affective organizational commitment: The contribution of supervisor’s organizational embodiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(6), 1085-1103. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020858
Graen, G. B., Liden, R. C., & Hoel, W. (1982). Role of leadership in the employee withdrawal process. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67(6), 868-872.https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.67.6.868
Graen, G. B., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), 219-247.https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5
Guay, R. P., Kim, Y. J., Oh, I. S., & Vogel, R. M. (2019). The interaction effects of leader and follower conscientiousness on person- supervisor fit perceptions and follower outcomes: A cross-level moderated indirect effects model. Human Performance, 32(3), 181-199.https://doi.org/10.1080/08959285.2019.1649677
*Ha, Y. J. (2013). Calling and work-related outcomes: Career commitment as a mediator and person-supervisor fit and perceived organizational support as moderators. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Yonsei University.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076546
Hoffman, B. J., Blair, C. A., Meriac, J. P., & Woehr, D. J. (2007). Expanding the criterion domain? A quantitative review of the OCB literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 555-566.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.555
Hofstede, G., Hofstede G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and Expanded (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.
*Hur, K. M. (2011). The effect of person- environment fit on job attitude in casino employees: Focused on the mediating effect of the role-stress, psychological empowerment, and trust [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Kyonggi University.
Hutchison, S. (1997). A path model of perceived organizational support. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(1), 159-174.
*Hyun, H. J. (2003). The effects of person- organization, person-job, and person-person fit on member’s attitude and behavior toward organization, job, and other person: Application of polynomial regression and response surface methodology [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Kwangwoon Universitiy.
Ironson, G. H., Smith, P. C., Brannick, M. T., Gibson, W. M., & Paul, K. B. (1989). Construction of a job in general scale: A comparison of global, composite, and specific measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(2), 193-200.https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.74.2.193
*Jang, B. J., Ju, H. J., & Wang, T. K. (2018). The impacts of person-environment fit on turnover intention: Focusing on the moderating effect of job satisfaction. Korean Public Administration Quarterly, 30(4), 889-908. https://doi.org/10.21888/KPAQ.2018.12.30.4.889
*Jang, H. I., Ha, M. H., & Heo, E. J. (2017). The effects of person-environment fit on job satisfaction and turnover intention in estheticians. Journal of Investigative Cosmetology, 13(3), 343-350.https://doi.org/10.15810/jic.2017.13.4.006
*Ji, H. I., &., & Yoo, T. Y. (2018). The mediating effect of subordinate’s emotional labor toward supervisor in the relationship between subordinate-supervisor fit and turnover intention. Locality and Globality, 42(3), 177-205.https://doi.org/10.33071/ssricb.42.3.201812.177
Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012). Job attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 341-367.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100511
Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376-407.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.376
Judge, T. A., Weiss, H. M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Hulin, C. L. (2017). Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 356.https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000181
Jung, D. I., & Avolio, B. J. (2000). Opening the black box: An experimental investigation of the mediating effects of trust and value congruence on transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 949-964.https://doi.org/10.1002/1099-1379(200012)21:8<949::AID-JOB64>3.0.CO;2-F
Kamdar, D., McAllister, D. J., & Turban, D. B. (2006). “All in a day’s work”: How follower individual differences and justice perceptions predict OCB role definitions and behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 841-855. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.841
*Kang, Y. S. (2012). Differential effects of person-environment fit on job performance and mediating effect of perceived work value. Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 19(4), 75-98.
*Kim, D. H. (2015). Analysis of the effect of career agents’ personality and person- environment fit on turnover intention: Focusing on the mediating effect of job satisfaction [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Hoseo University.
*Kim, W. J. (2013). The effect of person-environment fit on organizational commit and career commit of hotel employees: Focused on the mediating role of organizational commitment. Journal of Foodservice Management Society of Korea, 16(3), 71-88.
*Kim, Y. H. (2019). A study on the structural relationship between person-environment fit and performance: Focusing on the mediating effect of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Social Science, 58(1), 301-338. https://doi.org/10.22418/JSS.2019.6.58.1.301
Klaic, A., Burtscher, M. J., & Jonas, K. (2018). Person-supervisor fit, needs-supplies fit, and team fit as mediators of the relationship between dual-focused transformational leadership and well-being in scientific teams. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 27(5), 669-682.http://doi.org.ssl.ca.skku.edu:8080/10.1080/1359432X.2018.1502174
*Ko B. S. (2016). Analysis on the moderating effects of fit on the relationship between emotional leadership and job attitude [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Honam University.
*Ko, Y. S., & Kang, Y. S. (2015). Differential effects of person-environment fit on commitments and multi-foci commitment on OCBs, and mediating effects of commitment types. Journal of Organization and Management, 39(2), 63-97.
Konovsky, M. A., & Pugh, S. D. (1994). Citizenship behavior and social exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 656-669. https://doi.org/10.5465/256704
Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals’ fit at work: A meta-analysis of person-job, person-organization, person-group, and person-supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281-342.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00672.x
Kwak, W. S., & Lee, J. G. (2001). Relationships between organizational support factors and customer encounter employees’ service performance. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 14(2), 95-114.
*Kwon, J. O., & Kang, J. M. (2019). The effect of person-environment fit (person-job fit, person-organization fit, person- supervisor fit) and job embeddedness on turnover intention in clinical nurses. Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, 10(3), 307-317. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2019.10.3.307
*Lee, B. R., & Lee, K. H. (2016). The differences of the effect of various levels of person- environment fit on job satisfaction. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 19(3), 285-300.
*Lee, C. W. (2012a). The effect of health care professional employees person-environment fit on career commitment. Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 25(4), 2549-2573.
*Lee, C. W. (2012b). The effect of junior college’s bachelor’s degree course students’ job-fit and supervisor-fit on intention to skill development: Focused on the mediating effect of job satisfaction. Journal of Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, 13(3), 1105-1113.http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2012.13.3.1105
*Lee, J. Y., & Kim, M. O. (2016). Effects of person-environment (organization, job, supervisor) fit on the innovative work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior for office professionals. Journal of Secretarial Studies, 25(2), 133-156.
Lee, M. A., Kim, M., Lee, B. K., & Tak, J. K. (2018). The effect of the work meaning on organizational commitment: The moderating effect of transformational leadership. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 31(1), 221-248.
Lee, Y. M. (2008). Facet-based and facet-only job satisfaction measures in Korea. Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 15(4), 147-185.
Marstand, A. F., Martin, R., & Epitropaki, O. (2017). Complementary person-supervisor fit: An investigation of supplies-values (SV) fit, leader-member exchange (LMX) and work outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 28(3), 418-437.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2016.10.008
Meglino, B. M., Ravlin, E. C., & Adkins, C. L. (1989). A work values approach to corporate culture: A field test of the value congruence process and its relationship to individual outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(3), 424-432.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.3.424
Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52. https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2001.1842
*Moon, K. K., & Hur, K. R. (2019). The impact of ethical leadership on organizational citizenship behavior in police organizations: Focused on the moderating role of person-supervisor fit. Korean Public Administration Quarterly, 31(4), 911-929. https://doi.org/10.21888/KPAQ.2019.12.31.4.911
Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14(3), 224-247.https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(87)90043-1
Muchinsky, P. M., Monahan, C. J. (1987). What is person-environment congruence? Supplementary versus complementary models of fit. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31(3), 268-277.https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(87)90043-1
*Nam, J. S., Kim, Y. H., & Lee, H. S. (2015). The effects of person-environment fit on innovative work behavior of police officer: Focused on the mediating effect of organizational commitment. The Journal of Police Science, 15(3), 3-37.
Naquin, C. E., Kurtzberg, T. R., & Belkin, L. Y. (2010). The finer points of lying online: E-mail versus pen and paper. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(2), 387-394.https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018627
Oh, I. S., Guay, R. P., Kim, K., Harold, C. M., Lee, J. H., Heo, C. G., & Shin, K. H. (2014). Fit happens globally: A meta‐analytic comparison of the relationships of person- environment fit dimensions with work attitudes and performance across East Asia, Europe, and North America. Personnel Psychology, 67(1), 99-152.https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12026
*Oh, J. W., & Han, S. J. (2018). Mediating effects of person-environment fit between calling and job satisfaction of nurses in small and medium size general hospitals. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 24(5), 365-374.
Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(1), 157-164.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.1.157
Park, H. I. (2019). Sequential mediation from emotional labor to job burnout: Contrast between surface acting and deep acting. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 38(4), 599-623.https://doi.org/10.22257/kjp.2019.12.38.4.599
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563.https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600307
Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual -and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta- analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1), 122-141.https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013079
Preacher, K. J. (2002, May). Calculation for the test of the difference between two independent correlation coefficients [Computer software]. Available from http://quantpsy.org.
Reio, Jr. T. G. (2010). The threat of common method variance bias to theory building. Human Resource Development Review, 9(4), 405-411.https://doi.org/10.1177/1534484310380331
*Rhee, T. S., Soon, D. H., & Zheng, Fusheng. (2018). The impact of person-supervisor fit on organizational citizenship behavior: Mediating effect of outcome expectancy. Journal of East and Central Asian Studies, 29(1), 5-17. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.472
Riketta, M. (2008). The causal relation between job attitudes and performance: A meta-analysis of panel studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(2), 472-481.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.472
Rosenthal, R. (1979). The file drawer problem and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.638
Rusbult, C. E., & Farrell, D. (1983). A longitudinal test of the investment model: The impact on job satisfaction, job commitment, and turnover of variations in rewards, costs, alternatives, and investments. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(3), 429.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.68.3.429
Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International, 14(3), 204-220.https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430910966406
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E. (2015). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings (3rd ed.). Sage.
Schmidt, F. L., & Le, H. A. (2014). Hunter & Schmidt Meta-Analysis Programs version 2.0 [computer software]. University of Iowa.
Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (1993). The service organization: Human resources management is crucial. Organizational Dynamics, 21(4), 39-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(93)90032-v
*Seong, J. Y., Park, W. W., & Yun, S. H. (2008). The effect of person-environment (organization, supervisor, coworker) fit, on organizational citizenship behavior and performance, and the mediating effect of justice. Korean Journal of Management, 16(2), 1-62.
Spector, E. P. (1994). Job satisfaction survey. Department of Psychology, University of South Florida.
Spector, E. P. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Sage.
Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 221-232.https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428105284955
Statistics Korea. (2019). 2019 Social survey. http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/1/6/3/index.board?bmode=read&bSeq=&aSeq=378876&pageNo=1&rowNum=10&navCount=10&currPg=&searchInfo=&sTarget=title&sTxt=
Steel, R. P., & Ovalle, N. K. (1984). A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(4), 673-686.https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.69.4.673
Tak, J. K. (2012). Relation between various person-environment fit types and employees’ mental health: A longitudinal study. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 25(3), 557-570.
United Nations. Statistical Division. (2008). International standard industrial classification of all economic activities (ISIC) (No. 4). United Nations Publications.https://unstats.un.org/unsd/publication/seriesM/seriesm_4rev4e.pdf
Vancouver, J. B., Millsap, R. E., & Peters, P. A. (1994). Multilevel analysis of organizational goal congruence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 666-679.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.5.666
Vancouver, J. B., & Schmitt, N. W. (1991). An exploratory examination of person-organization fit: Organizational goal congruence. Personnel Psychology, 44(2), 333-352.http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1991.tb00962.x
Van Vianen, A. E. M. (2000). Person-organization fit: The match between newcomers’ and recuiters’ preferences for organizational cultures. Personnel Psychology, 53(1), 113-149. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2000.tb00196.x
Van Vianen, A. E. M., Shen, C., & Chuang, A. (2011). Person-organization and person- supervisor fits: Employee commitments in a Chinese context. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(6), 906-926.http://doi.org/10.1002/job.726
Wayne, S. J., & Ferris, G. R. (1990). Influence tactics, affect, and exchange quality in supervisor-subordinate interactions: A laboratory experiment and field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5), 487-499. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.5.487
Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17(3), 601-617.https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639101700305
*Yang, P, S., & Kim, H. R. (2011). Mediating effects of person-supervisor fit on the relationship between core self-evaluations and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 24(4), 2275-2300.
Yoo, T. Y., & Hyun, H. J. (2003). The application of polynomial regression and response surface methodology to person- environment fit research. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 16(3), 201-222.