The Effect of Coworker Incivility on Turnover Intention The Mediating Effect of Exhaustion Moderated by Recovery Experiences

Main Article Content

YeonJu Lee
YooNa Kim
HyungIn Park


This study investigated the moderating effects of recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control) on the mediational path from coworker incivility to turnover intention via exhaustion. Recovery experiences were expected to buffer the effect of exhaustion on turnover intention, ultimately alleviating the magnitude of the indirect effect of coworker incivility on turnover intention. The results from 193 Korean workers revealed that mastery and control experiences buffered the relationship between exhaustion and turnover intention. Control experience also showed the moderated mediational effect reducing the negative impact of coworker incivility on turnover intention through exhaustion. Based on these results, academic and practical implications were discussed, along with the suggestions for future research directions.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Lee, Y., Kim, Y., & Park, H. (2021). The Effect of Coworker Incivility on Turnover Intention: The Mediating Effect of Exhaustion Moderated by Recovery Experiences. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 34(1), 27–50.
Empirical Articles


Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Sage Publications.

Ambrose, M. L., Schminke, M., & Mayer, D. M. (2013). Trickle-down effects of supervisor perceptions of interactional justice: A moderated mediation approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(4), 678-689.

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 452-471.

Becker, T. E., Atinc, G., Breaugh, J. A., Carlson, K. D., Edwards, J. R., & Spector, P. E. (2016). Statistical control in correlational studies: 10 essential recommendations for organizational researchers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(2), 157-167.

Cho, M. M., Kim, J. B., Kwun, H. S., Kang, C. W., Lee, M. K., Yun, J. W., Jeong, H. J., & Lee, J. H. (2019). Impact of incivility experienced by dental hygienists on organizational achievement -as a mediating effect of emotional exhaustion. Journal of Korean Academy of Oral Health, 43(3), 163-169.

Chung, H. S., Ha, H. K., & Park, D. G. (2010). The influence of organizational silence on turnover intention: Mediated moderating effect of self-efficacy through organizational cynicism. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 89-104.

Cohen, G., Blake, R. S., & Goodman, D. (2016). Does turnover intention matter? Evaluating the usefulness of turnover intention rate as a predictor of actual turnover rate. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 36(3), 240-263.

Cortina, L. M., Kabat-Farr, D., Magley, V. J., & Nelson, K. (2017). Researching rudeness: The past, present, and future of the science of incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 299-313.

Cortina, L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2009). Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(3), 272-288.

Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(1), 64-80.

Demsky, C. A., Fritz, C., Hammer, L. B., & Black, A. E. (2019). Workplace incivility and employee sleep: The role of rumination and recovery experiences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(2), 228-240.

Geurts, S. A., & Sonnentag, S. (2006). Recovery as an explanatory mechanism in the relation between acute stress reactions and chronic health impairment. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 32(6), 482-492.

Goodman, L. A. (1961). Snowball sampling. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 32(1), 148-170.

Griffin, B. (2010). Multilevel relationships between organizational-level incivility, justice and intention to stay. Work & Stress, 24(4), 309-323.

Han, S. J., Bonn, M. A., & Cho, M. (2016). The relationship between customer incivility, restaurant frontline service employee burnout and turnover intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 52, 97-106.

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd ed.). Guilford Press.

Hershcovis, S. (2011). ‘Incivility, social undermining, bullying . . . Oh my!’: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(3), 499-519.

Hobfoll, S. E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524. https://10.1037/0003-066X.44.3.513

Hobfoll, S. E., & Freedy, J. (1993). Conservation of resources: A general stress theory applied to burnout. In W. B. Schaufeli, C. Maslach, & T. Marek (Eds.), Series in applied psychology: Social issues and questions. Professional burnout: Recent developments in theory and research (pp. 115-133). Taylor & Francis.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, McGraw-Hill.

Hur, W. M., Kim, B. S., & Park, S. J. (2015). The relationship between coworker incivility, emotional exhaustion, and organizational outcomes: The mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 25(6), 701-712.

Jo, E. (2019). Development and validation of workplace coworker incivility scale. (Unpublished thesis). Kwangwoon University, Seoul, Korea.

JOBKOREA (2019, May 29). 10년차 직장인 이직횟수 ‘평균 4회’[The average turnover of employees who has been working for 10 years ’Average 4 times]. JOBKOEREA.

Jung S. Y., Bae, S-W., & Jun, J. (2015). The influence of customer incivility on the hotel employees’ organizational outcomes: Focusing on the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion. Korean Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 24(3), 23-40.

Kern, J. H., & Grandey, A. A. (2009). Customer incivility as a social stressor: The role of race and racial identity for service employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(1), 46-57.

Kim, H., & Jung, S. (2016). The effect of job stressor on flourishing: The moderated mediating effects of emotional stability through recovery. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 29(3), 411-432.

Kim, Y., Lee, H., & Park, H. I. (2018). Relationships between role overload and work engagement among employees: A moderated mediation model. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 31(1), 249-279.

Lee, Y., Lee, S-M., & Park, H. I. (2019). A meta-analytic study of the relationship between workplace incivility and turnover intention. Journal of Social Science, 30(4), 157-174.

Leiter, M. P., Day, A., Gilin-Oore, D., & Spence Laschinger, H. K. (2012). Getting better and staying better: assessing civility, incivility, distress, and job attitudes one year after a civility intervention. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(4), 425-434.

Leiter, M. P., & Maslach, C. (1988). The impact of interpersonal environment on burnout and organizational commitment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9(4), 297-308.

Lim, S., Cortina L. M., & Magley, V. J. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 95-107.

Lim, S., & Lee, A. (2011). Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(1), 95-111.

Liu, W., Zhou, Z. E., & Che, X. X. (2019). Effect of workplace incivility on OCB through burnout: The moderating role of affective commitment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(5), 657-669.

Maslach, C. (1998). A multidimensional theory of burnout. In C.L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of organizational stress (pp. 68-85). Oxford University Press.

Matthews, R. A., & Ritter, K. J. (2019). Applying adaptation theory to understand experienced incivility processes: Testing the repeated exposure hypothesis. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(2), 270-285.

Meier, L. L., & Spector, P. E. (2013). Reciprocal effects of work stressors and counterproductive work behavior: A five-wave longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(3), 529-539.

Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In P. J. D. Drenth & H. Thierry (Eds.), Handbook of work and organizational psychology, Vol. 2: Work psychology (pp. 5-33). Psychology Press.

Miner‐Rubino, K., & Reed, W. D. (2010). Testing a moderated mediational model of workgroup incivility: The roles of organizational trust and group regard. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(12), 3148-3168.

Miner, K. N., Pesonen, A. D., Smittick, A. L., Seigel, M. L., & Clark, E. K. (2014). Does being a mom help or hurt? Workplace incivility as a function of motherhood status. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(1), 60-73.

Ng, K. Y., Ang, S., & Chan, K. Y. (2008). Personality and leader effectiveness: A moderated mediation model of leadership self-efficacy, job demands, and job autonomy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4), 733-743.

Oh, I-S., Kim, K., Darnold, T. C., Hwang, J-O., Yoo, T-Y., Park, Y-A., & Park L. H. (2007). Relationships among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and turnover intention: A literature review and meta-analysis with Korean samples. Korean Journal of Management, 15(4), 43-86.

Olsson-Collentine, A., van Assen, M. A. L. M., & Hartgerink, C. H. J. (2019). The prevalence of marginally significant results in psychology over time. Psychological sScience, 30(4), 576-586.

Park, H. I., Jacob, A. C., Wagner, S. H., & Baiden, M. (2014). Job control and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 63(4), 607-642.

Park, H. I., Park, Y., Kim, M., & Hur, T. (2011). A validation study of a Korean version of the Recovery Experience Questionnaire. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(3), 523-552.

Porath, C. (2018). Mastering civility (T-Y. Jung, Trans.). Next Wave Media. (Original work published 2016).

Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2012). Emotional and behavioral responses to workplace incivility and the impact of hierarchical status. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42(S1), E326-E357.

Pritschet, L., Powell, D., & Horne, Z. (2016). Marginally significant effects as evidence for hypotheses: Changing attitudes over four decades. Psychological Science, 27(7), 1036-1042.

Rubenstein, A. L., Eberly, M. B., Lee T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (2018). Surveying the forest: A meta‐analysis, moderator investigation, and future‐oriented discussion of the antecedents of voluntary employee turnover. Personnel Psychology, 71(1), 23-65.

Schilpzand, P., De Pater, I. E., & Erez, A. (2016). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(S1), S57-S88.

Shin, K. (2017). The moderating effects of the self-efficacy on the relationship between workplace incivility and burnout, turnover intention of early childhood teachers. The Society of Digital Policy & Management, 15(6), 447-456.

Shin, K-H. (2003). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS): An application in South Korea. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 16(3), 1-17.

Sliter, M. T., & Boyd, E. M. (2015). But we’re here to help! Positive buffers of the relationship between outsider incivility and employee outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24(2), 225-238.

Sliter, M., Sliter, K., & Jex, S. (2012). The employee as a punching bag: The effect of multiple sources of incivility on employee withdrawal behavior and sales performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(1), 121-139.

Sonnentag, S. (2001). Work, recovery activities, and individual well-being: A diary study. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6(3), 196-210.

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The Recovery Experience Questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 204-221.

Sonnentag, S., & Kruel, U. (2006). Psychological detachment from work during off-job time: The role of job stressors, job involvement, and recovery-related self-efficacy. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15(2), 197-217.

Spence Laschinger, H. K., Leiter, M., Day, A., & Gilin, D. (2009). Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: Impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes. Journal of Nursing Management, 17(3), 302-311.

Staw, B. M. (1980). The consequences of turnover. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 1(4), 253-273.

Steel, R. P., & Ovalle, N. K. (1984). A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(4), 673-686.

Taylor, S. G., Bedeian, A. G., Cole, M. S., & Zhang, Z. (2017). Developing and testing a dynamic model of workplace incivility change. Journal of Management, 43(3), 645-670.

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46(2), 259-293.

van Hooft, E. A. J. (2014). Motivating and hindering factors during the reemployment process: The added value of employment counselors’ assessment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(1), 1-17.

Vogel, R. M., Mitchell, M. S., Tepper, B. J., Restubog, S. L. D., Hu, C., Hua, W., & Huang, J.-C. (2015). A cross-cultural examination of subordinates' perceptions of and reactions to abusive supervision. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(5), 720-745.

Yang, D., & Shim, D. (2015). The effects of job demand and job control on work-family conflict, burnout and turnover intention. Korean Corporation Management Review, 60(0), 87-108.

Yeung, A., & Griffin, B. (2008). Workplace incivility: Does it matter in Asia? People & Strategy, 31(3), 14-19.

Zapf, D., Dormann, C., & Frese, M. (1996). Longitudinal studies in organizational stress research: A review of the literature with reference to methodological issue. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1(2), 145-169.

Most read articles by the same author(s)