Main Article Content
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Work Meaning Inventory(WMI). 86 items and 9 factors of the inventory were obtained based on open-ended questionnaires from 88 workers. Two preliminary on-line surveys from 500 and 236 employees, respectively, were carried to analyze factor structure of the WMI. The final result showed that the 8 factor model with 54 items was appropriate. Finally, to test the validity of the WMI, the main on-line survey was carried and the questionnaires were collected from 1016 employees across a wide variety of companies. In order to check cross-validity of the inventory, the total group was divided into two sub-groups (each group with 508 employees). The results of factor analyses with group 1 showed that the 8-factor model with 47 items was appropriate. Also the results of confirmatory factor analysis with group 2 showed that the 8-factor model fit the data well. Final 8 factors were as follows: 1) interpersonal relation, 2) economic means, 3) recognition, 4) family support, 5) enjoyment seeking, 6) growth opportunity, 7) society contribution, and 8) life vitality. The WMI was significantly correlated with various criteria such as life satisfaction, life meaning, flourishing, and mental health. Finally, implications and limitations of this study and the directions for future study were discussed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
브레인미디어 (2013, 1, 31). 직장인 10명 중 7명, 회사만 가면 우울해져. http://www. brainmedia.co.kr/brainWorldMedia/Content View.aspx?contIdx=10957에서 자료 얻음.
세계파이낸스 (2012) 대한민국 직장인 74% 월급받기 위해 일한다-직장인에게 일의 의미는. 세계파이낸스. http://fn.segye.com/ articles/article.asp?aid=20120514002275&cid=0501030000000에서 자료 얻음.
신선인 (2001). 한국판 일반정신건강척도(KGHQ)의 개발에 관한 연구 1. 한국사회복지학, 46(9), 210-235.
신현균, 장재윤 (2003). 대학 4학년생의 성격특성과 성별에 따른 취업 스트레스 및 정신건강. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 22(4), 815- 827.
심예린 (2010). 한국판 소명 척도 타당화. 이화여자대학교 대학원. 국내석사학위논문.
예지은 (2013). 직장인의 행복에 관한 연구. 서울: 삼성경제연구소.
원두리, 김교헌, 권선중 (2005). 한국판 삶의 의미척도의 타당화 연구: 대학생을 대상으로. 한국심리학회지 건강, 10(2), 211-225.
장수현 (2012). 일의 목적/의미 및 부모지지와 구직행동의 관계에서 진로결정 자기효능감의 매개효과. 이화여자대학교 대학원. 국내석사학위논문.
장형석 (1999). 일의 의미 척도구성을 위한 탐색적 연구. 硏究報, 31(1), 109-140.
장형석 (2000). 일의 의미 척도의 구성 및 직무만족과의 관계. 심리과학연구, 1(-), 81- 117.
장형석 (2001). 직무만족과 일의 의미 정도에 따른 삶의 목적감의 차이. 硏究報, 33(1), 137-158.
탁진국 (2007). 심리검사: 개발과 평가방법의 이해. 서울: 학지사.
황매향, 조효진, 조윤진, 방지원 (2013). 대학생의 일의 의미와 진로 결정과정에서의 경험에 대한 질적연구. 한국심리학회지 일반, 32(3), 675-699.
Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A., & Tighe, E. M. (1994). The work preference inventory: Assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5) 950-967.
Arnold, K. A., Turner, N., Barling, J., Kelloway, E. K., & Mckee, M. C. (2007). Transformational leadership and psychological well-being: The mediating role of meaningful work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 193-203.
Ashmos, D. & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134-145.
Bandalos, D. L. (2002). The effects of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(1), 78-102.
Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford Press.
Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life: University of California Press Berkeley.
Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior: Springer Science & Business Media.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D.-w., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97(2), 143-156.
Dik, B. J., Sargent, A. M., & Steger, M. F. (2008). Career Development Strivings Assessing Goals and Motivation in Career Decision-Making and Planning. Journal of Career Development, 35(1), 23-41.
Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and validation of the calling and vocation questionnaire (CVQ) and brief calling scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 242-263.
Dreher, D. E., Holloway, K. A., & Schoenfelder, E. (2007). The vocation identity questionnaire: Measuring the sense of calling. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 18, 99-120.
Duffy, R. D. & Sedlacek, W. E. (2007). The presence of and search for a calling: Connections to career development. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70(3), 590-601.
Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., Torrey, C. L., & Dik, B. J. (2012). Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 50-59.
Emmons, R. A. (2003). Personal goals, life meaning, and virtue: Wellsprings of a positive life. Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived, 105-128.
Frankl, V. E. (1985). Man's search for meaning: Simon and Schuster.
Goldberg, D. P. (1972). PA: The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire: London, Oxford University Press.
Harpaz, I. & Fu, X. (2002). The structure of the meaning of work: A relative stability amidst change. Human Relations, 55(6), 639-667.
MOW International Research Team (1987). The meaning of working. London: Academic Press.
Peterson, C., Ruch, W., Beermann, U., Park, N., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2007). Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 149-156.
Steger, M., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2004). The development and validation of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Unpublished Manuscript. University of Minnesota.
Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring Meaningful Work The Work and Meaning Inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322-337.
Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 80-93.
Steger, M. F., Pickering, N. K., Shin, J. Y., & Dik, B. J. (2010). Calling in Work Secular or Sacred? Journal of Career Assessment, 18(1), 82-96.
Wrzesniewski, A., Dutton, J. E., & Debebe, G. (2003). Interpersonal sensemaking and the meaning of work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 25, 93-136.
Wrzesniewski, A., Mccauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(1), 21-33.