The effect of Coaching Leadership on Organizational Trust and Innovative Behavior: Moderated Mediation by Power Distance Orientation

Main Article Content

EunKyoung Chung
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1877-1984
SeonKyu Park

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of coaching leadership on organizational trust and innovative behavior depending on the level of power distance orientation. Specifically, the relationship between coaching leadership and innovative behavior was examined and the mediating effect of organizational trust was identified in the effect of coaching leadership on innovative behavior. In addition, this study examined a moderating effect of power distance orientation on the relationship between organizational trust and innovative behavior Finally, the relationship between coaching leadership and innovative behavior is verified by the moderated mediating effect of power distance orientation in the mediation of organizational trust. For this purpose, data from 697 Korean workers were collected through Embrain, an Internet survey company in Korea. According to the research, the relationship between coaching leadership and innovative behavior has been proven to have a partial mediating effect significantly by organizational trust. The moderating effect of the power distance orientation and the moderated mediating effect were also both significant. Employees with lower organizational turst and lower power distance orientation tended to innovate more than employees with higher power distance orientation, but the difference was found to have been decreased significantly at a higher level of organizational trust. Finally, we discussed practical implications, limitations, and future research.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
정 은., & Park, S. (2021). The effect of Coaching Leadership on Organizational Trust and Innovative Behavior: Moderated Mediation by Power Distance Orientation. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 34(3), 349–375. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v34i3.349-375
Section
Empirical Articles
Author Biography

EunKyoung Chung, Kangwon National University

Department of Psychology

References

Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of personality and social psychology, 45(2), 357-376.https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.45.2.357

Anderson, M. C., Frankovelgia, C., & Hernez Broome, G. (2009). In focus/coaching: Business leaders reflect on coaching cultures. Leadership in Action: A Publication of the Center for Creative Leadership and Jossey Bass, 28(6), 20-22. https://doi.org/10.1002/lia.1273

Appelbaum, N. P., Lockeman, K. S., Orr, S., Huff, T. A., Hogan, C. J., Queen, B. A., & Dow, A. W. (2020). Perceived influence of power distance, psychological safety, and team cohesion on team effectiveness. Journal of interprofessional care, 34(1), 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2019.1633290

Arnold, J. A., Arad, S., Rhoades, J. A., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The Empowering Leadership Questionnaire: the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring leader behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(3), 249-269.https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200005)21:3<249::AID-JOB10>3.0.CO;2-#tionnaire: The Construction and Validation of a New Scale for Measuring Leader Behaviors”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 249-269.

Aryee, S., Budhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 23(3), 267-285. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.138

Battistelli, A., Montani, F., & Odoardi, C. (2013). The impact of feedback from job and task autonomy in the relationship between dispositional resistance to change and innovative work behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(1), 26-41.https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2011.616653.

Cho, E. H., & Tak, J. K. (2011). Development and Validity of the Coaching Leadership Scale. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(1), 127-155.http://dx.doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.1.201102.127

Choi, I. O., Park, J. H., & Sun, J. G. (2011). A Study on the Relationship between Organizational Culture and Innovative Behaviors of Organizational Members: The Moderating Effect of Organizational Trust and Task Conflict. The Journal of Business and Economics, 27(3), 1-33.https://doi.org/10.22793/indinn.2011.27.3.001

Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non fulfilment. Journal of occupational psychology, 53(1), 39-52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1980.tb00005.x

Costa, A. C. (2003), Work team trust and effectiveness. Personnel Review, 32(5), 605-622. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483480310488360

Dai, Y. (2019). Coaching Leadership, Job Motivation and Employee Innovation Behavior. In 5th Annual International Conference on Social Science and Contemporary Humanity Development, 592-597.https://doi.org/10.2991/sschd-19.2019.120.

Dorfman, P. W., & Howell, J. P. (1988). Dimensions of national culture and effective leadership patterns: Hofstede revisited. Advances in international comparative management, 3(1), 127-150.

Drucker, P.F. (1988). The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review, 66, 45-53.

Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative science quarterly, 44(2), 350-383.https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999

Ellinger, A. D., & Bostrom, R. P. (1999). Managerial coaching behaviors in learning organizations. Journal of Management Development, 18(9), 752-771.https://doi.org/10.1108/02621719910300810

Ellinger, A. D., Ellinger, A. E., & Keller, S. B. (2003). Supervisory coaching behavior, employee satisfaction, and warehouse employee performance: A dyadic perspective in the distribution industry. Human resource development quarterly, 14(4), 435-458.https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1078

Farh, J. L., Hackett, R. D., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support-employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of management journal, 50(3), 715-729.https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.25530866

Fox, A. (1974). Beyond contract: Work, power and trust relations. Faber & Faber.

Glassman, E. (1986). Managing for creativity: Back to basics in R&D. R&D Management, 16(2), 175-183.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9310.1986.tb01170.x

Goodwin, J., & Goodwin, D. (1999). Ethical Judgments Across Cultures: A Comparison between Business Students from Malaysia and New Zealand. Journal of Business Ethics, 3(18), 267-281.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005785020162

Gudykunst, W. B., & Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Culture and affective communication. American behavioral scientist, 31(3), 384-400.https://doi.org/10.1177/000276488031003009

Guo, S. H. (2018). The Effects of Power Distance between Manager and Employee on Knowledge Hiding Behavior: Focusing on Moderating Effect of Distributive and Procedural Justice. (Master’s thesis). Hoseo University, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

Ha, W., & Tak, J. (2012). The effect of coaching leadership on contextual performance and creative behavior: The moderating effects of organizational virtuousness and goal orientation. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 25(1), 195-213. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v25i1.195-213

Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication monographs, 85(1), 4-40.https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100

Heslin, P. A., Vandewalle, D. O. N., & Latham, G. P. (2006). KEEN TO HELP? MANAGERS’IMPLICIT PERSON THEORIES AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT EMPLOYEE COACHING. Personnel psychology, 59(4), 871- 902.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2006.00057.x

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International studies of management & organization, 10(4), 15-41.https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.1980.11656300

Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13(1-2), 46-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.1983.11656358

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications.

Hwang, C. Y. (2017). The effect of coaching leadership on perceived information system quality, satisfaction, and performance. (Master’s thesis). Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and organizational psychology, 73(3), 287-302. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317900167038

Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., De Luque, M. S., & House, R. J. (2006). In the eye of the beholder: Cross cultural lessons in leadership from project GLOBE. Academy of management perspectives, 20(1), 67-90.https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2006.19873410

Javidan, M., House, R. J., Dorfman, P. W., Hanges, P. J., & de Luque, M. S. (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring cultures and their consequences: a comparative review of GLOBE’s and Hofstede’s approaches. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 897-914. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400234

Jeong, Y. R., & Chung, E. K. (2019). Effects of Supervisors’ Power Distance Orientation on Employees’ Unethical Pro-Organization Behavior and Somatization: Mediating Effect of Job Stress and Moderating Effect of Job Engagement. Korean Corporation Management Review, 26(6), 29-50.

Jo, I. H. (2016). The effect of coaching leadership on the job engagement and job performance. (Master’s thesis). Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

Johnson-George, C., & Swap, W. C. (1982). Measurement of specific interpersonal trust: Construction and validation of a scale to assess trust in a specific other. Journal of personality and social psychology, 43(6), 1306. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.43.6.1306

Kang, M. J., & Jung, M. S. (2019). Analysis of the Domestic Research Trends on the Coaching Leadership. The Journal of Humanities and Social science, 10(4), 339-352.https://doi.org/10.22143/HSS21.10.4.25

Kang, S. M. (2020). The Structural Relationships between Hotel Employees’Grit, Job Crafting and Innovative Behavior. Tourism Research, 45(4), 1-17.https://doi.org/10.32780/ktidoi.2020.45.4.1

Kanter, R. M. (1988). Three tiers for innovation research. Communication Research, 15(5), 509- 523.https://doi.org/10.1177/009365088015005001

Kanter, R. M. (1988). When a thousand flowers bloom: Structural, collective, and social conditions for innovation in organizations. Knowledge Management and Organisational Design, 10, 93-131.

Kark, R., & Carmeli, A. (2009). Alive and creating: The mediating role of vitality and aliveness in the relationship between psychological safety and creative work involvement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30(6), 785-804. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.571

Kee, H. W., & Knox, R. E. (1970). Conceptual and methodological considerations in the study of trust and suspicion. Journal of conflict resolution, 14(3), 357-366.https://doi.org/10.1177/002200277001400307

Kim, J. Y. (2013). The Relationship of Coaching Leadership, Intention to Leave and Organizational Trust among Eye Clinic Employees. (Master’s thesis). Inje University, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

Kim, J. S. (2018). Influences of Proactive Personality on Innovative Work Behavior: Moderations by Power Distance. Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 25(2), 41-59.http://dx.doi.org/10.14396/jhrmr.2018.25.2.41

Kim, M. K. (2011). The effect of the leader coaching behavior in the relationship between job engagement and innovative behavior. (Master’s thesis). Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

Kim, M. K., Moon, J. S. (2019). Inclusive Leadership and Creative Performance: The Role of Psychological Safety, Feedback-Seeking Behavior, and Power-Distance. Korean Journal of Human Resources Development, 22(4), 181-205. https://doi.org/10.24991/KJHRD.2019.12.22.4.181

Kim, W. B., & Rhee, K. Y. (2002). Trust, Social Capital and Organizational Commitment. Korean Journal of Sociology, 36(3), 1-23.

Kim, Y. J. (2005). A study on the impact of Job stress on Innovative Behavior. (Master’s thesis) Kyungnam University, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.

Kirkman, B. L., Chen, G., Farh, J. L., Chen, Z. X., & Lowe, K. B. (2009). Individual power distance orientation and follower reactions to transformational leaders: A cross-level, cross- cultural examination. Academy of management journal, 52(4), 744-764.https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.43669971

Konczak, L. J., Stelly, D. J., & Trusty, M. L. (2000). Defining and measuring empowering leader behaviors: Development of an upward feedback instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60(2), 301-313. https://doi.org/10.1177/00131640021970420

Kwon, J. U., & Kwon, S. J. (2015). The Intermediation of Self-Efficiency Between Empowering Leadership and Innovation Behavior. Corporate Education and Human Resources Research, 17(1), 83-103.

Kwon, M. K. (2013). A Study on Airline Employee’s Coaching Leadership, ServiceAttitude, and Innovation Behavior. (Doctor’s thesis). Kyunggi University, Kyunggi-do, Korea.

Lee Cunningham, J., Gino, F., Cable, D., & Staats, B. (2020). Seeing oneself as a valued contributor: social worth affirmation improves team information sharing. Academy of Management Journal.https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2018.0790

Lee, D. S. (2015). Effects of perceived organizational support and role-model on organizational commitment and turnover intention: a focus on mediating effects of organizational trust and self-efficacy. (Master’s thesis). Kyunghee University, Seoul, Korea.

Lee, H. E., & Jeon, J. H. (2016). The Moderating Effect of Power Distance Orientation on the Relationship between Psychological Empowerment, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention. Korean Jouranl of Business Administration, 29(12), 1919-1938. https://doi.org/10.18032/kaaba.2016.29.12.1919

Lee, H., & Kim, J. H. (2017). Effects of the Power Distance Orientation of Overseas Salesperson on Emotional Labor and Sales Performance. Journal of International Trade & Commerce, 13(3), 605-621.http://dx.doi.org/10.16980/jitc.13.3.201706.605

Lee, S. Y. (2018). The effect of SME CEO leadership type and organizational culture on organizational effectiveness: focusing on mediating effect of job crafting. (doctor’s thesis). Hoseo University, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

Lim, K. H. (2017). A study on the Effects of Authorized Leadership on police Mid-level Manager on Job attitude and Organizational commitment: Focused on Job crafting mediation effect (doctor’s thesis). Hansei University, Gyunggi-do, Korea

Liu, W. (2016). The Effect of Leader’s Coaching Leadership on The Burnout of Employee. (Master’s thesis). Korea University of technology & education, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

Livingston, J. 1969. Pygmalion in management. Harvard Business Review, 47(4), 81-89.

Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of management review, 20(3), 709-734.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1995.9508080335

McCauley, D. P., & Kuhnert, K. W. (1992). A theoretical review and empirical investigatiomn of employee trust in management. Public Administration Quarterly, 16(5) 265-284.

McLean, G. N., Yang, B., Kuo, M. H. C., Tolbert, A. S., & Larkin, C. (2005). Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring managerial coaching skill. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(2), 157-178.https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.1131

Min, S. J. (2012). Effects of S insurance company Leader’s Coaching Behavior on Members’ Innovative Behavior. (Master’s thesis). Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

Oh, H. S. (2012). The Effect of coaching leadership on organizational commitment: the mediating effect of trust in manager. (Master’s thesis). Kwangwoon University, Seoul, Korea.

Park, G. J., & Sohn, Y. W. (2009). The Relationship of Empowering Leader Behavior to Team Learning Behavior and Team Transactive Memory: Team efficacy, Support for innovation, and Trust to leader as Mediators. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 22(1), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.22.1.200902.1

Park, J. C., & Kwon, B. H. (2021). Structural Relationship between Inclusive Leadership of the Boss, Power Distance, Psychological Safety, Innovation Behavior of Hotel Enterprise Employees. Journal of Hotel & Resort, 20(2), 47-65.

Park, J. H., & Yoon, B. S. (2018). A Study on the Effect of Coaching Leadership on the Organizational Commitment: Mediating Effect of Organizational Trust. Journal of CEO and Management Studies, 21(1), 373-198.

Park, J. H., & Yoon, B. S. (2016). The Effect of the Coaching Leadership on the Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating Effect of Trust. The Korean Society of Management Consulting, 16(1), 35-49.

Park, M. J. (2018). Structural Relationship among the Variables of Coaching Leadership, Innovative Behavior, Job Engagement, and Organization Commitment. Chungang University, Seoul, Korea.

Park, S., McLean, G. N., & Yang, B. (2008). Revision and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Managerial Coaching Skills in Organizations. Online Submission.

Pelz, D. C., & Andrews, F. M. (1966). Scientists in organizations: Productive climates for research and development.

Pieterse, A. N., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of organizational behavior, 31(4), 609-623. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.650

Rauniyar, K., Ding, D., & Rauniyar, N. (2017). Understanding the role of creative self-efficacy and power distance orientation for examining the consequences of abusive supervision on employee creativity: a case study from Nepal. Open Journal of Leadership, 6(2), 61-81. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2017.62004

Raza, B., Ali, M., Ahmed, S., & Moueed, A. (2017). Impact of managerial coaching on employee performance and organizational citizenship behavior: Intervening role of thriving at work. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 11(3), 790-813.

Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344-354. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2007.24348410

Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of management journal, 37(3), 580-607. https://doi.org/10.2307/256701

Seo, D. G. (2011). The influence of coaching leadership on the Employees’ Job commitment and innovative behavior. (Master’s thesis). Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Shalley, C. E., Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2004). The Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity: Where Should We Go from Here?. Journal of Management, 30(6), 933-958.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.007

Smith, P. B., Peterson, M. F., & Schwartz, S. H. (2002). Cultural values, sources of guidance, and their relevance to managerial behavior: A 47-nation study. Journal of cross-cultural Psychology, 33(2), 188-208.https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022102033002005

Song, J. S. (2019). The Effect of Shared Leadership on Organizational Trust, Knowledge Sharing and Innovative Behavior. Journal of the Korea contents assosiation, 19(9), 485-500.http://dx.doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2019.19.09.485

Song, U. S., & Kim, Y. B. (2010). The Relationship between Organizational Trust and Innovational Behavior: Focusing on the Mediation Impacts of the Organizational Commitment. Social Science Research Review, 26(3), 127-151.

Stowell, S. J. (1986). Leadership and Coaching, University of Utah (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Dissertation).

Sue-Chan, C., & Ong, M. (2002). Goal assignment and performance: Assessing the mediating roles of goal commitment and self-efficacy and the moderating role of power distance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(2), 1140-1161.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-5978(02)00017-1

Sung, H., & Tak, J. (2017). The effect of coaching leadership on creative behavior: The mediating effect of psychological empowerment. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 30(3), 373-391.https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v30i3.373-391

Tan, H. H., & Tan, C. S. (2000). Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization. Genetic, social, and general psychology monographs, 126(2), 241.

Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: An Interpretive Model of Intrinsic Task Motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1990.4310926.

Volmer, J., Spurk, D., & Niessen, C. (2012). Leader–member exchange (LMX), job autonomy, and creative work involvement. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 456-465.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.10.005

Wang, Y. L. (2013). R&D employees’ innovative behaviors in T aiwan: HRM and managerial coaching as moderators. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 51(4), 491-515.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7941.2012.00049.x

We, H. K., Kim, I., & Ryu, T. M. (2018). The Influence of Shared Leadership on Innovative Behavior: Mediated Effect of Organizational Trust. Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 25(5), 103-126.http://dx.doi.org/10.14396/jhrmr.2018.25.5.103

West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (1989). Innovation at work: Psychological perspectives. Social behaviour. Social behaviour, 4(1), 15-30.

Whitener, E. M., Brodt, S. E., Korsgaard, M. A., & Werner, J. M. (1998). Managers as initiators of trust: An exchange relationship framework for understanding managerial trustworthy behavior. Academy of management review, 23(3), 513-530.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1998.926624

Yang, I. S., Lee, S. H., & Lee, D. R. (2015). A Study on the Effects of Coaching Leadership on Organizational Effectiveness-The Mediating Role of Subordinates’ Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 22(5), 49-72.https://doi.org/10.14396/jhrmr.2015.22.5.49

Yoo, B. H. (2012). An Effect of Learning Orientation on Firm Performance: Focusing on Customer Orientation and Innovativeness. Korean Journal of Business Administration, 25(6), 2809-2826.

Yoo, D. K., Rao, S. S., & Hong, P. (2006). A comparative study on cultural differences and quality practices–Korea, USA, Mexico, and Taiwan. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 23(6), 607-624. https://doi.org/10.1108/02656710610672452

Yu, M. C., Mai, Q., Tsai, S. B., & Dai, Y. (2018). An empirical study on the organizational trust, employee-organization relationship and innovative behavior from the integrated perspective of social exchange and organizational sustainability. Sustainability, 10(3), 864. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030864

Yuan, F., & Woodman, R. W. (2010). Innovative behavior in the workplace: The role of performance and image outcome expectations. Academy of management journal, 53(2), 323-342. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.49388995

Zhang, X. (2020). The Relationship of Coaching Leadership and Innovation Behavior: Dual Mediation Model for Individuals and Teams across Levels. Open Journal of Leadership, 9(1), 70-83.https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2020.91005.

Zhou, J., & Shalley, C. E. (2003). Research on employee creativity: A critical review and directions for future research. Research in personnel and human resources management, 22, 165-217.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0742-7301(03)22004-1

MONEYTODAY (2020, March 25). 화상회의․재택근무․유연근무제...일터를 바꾼 코로나19. MONEYTODAY.https://news.mt.co.kr/mtview.php?no=2020032418374243433