The relationship between reaction and learning in leadership training Focus on moderating effect of trainee's difference variable

Main Article Content

ChangGoo Heo
BokSun Jeon
KangHyun Shin


This study examined the relationship between ‘reaction’ and ‘learning’ based on the Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model, with an emphasis on the moderating effect of trainee's difference variable(goal-orientation, openness to experience, extraversion). The survey data from a job training class of 212 employees were analyzed. The results of the study are summarized as follows; First, the three dimensions of reaction(enjoyment, usefulness, difficulty) predicted subjective learning significantly. In other words, when trainees felt enjoyment or usefulness about their training program, effect of learning increased. However, learning was decreased as they felt difficulties in training program. Second, the result showed that among trainee's individual difference variables, mastery goal-orientation, performance goal-orientation, and extraversion had positive effect on learning while openness to experience had not any effect. Third, this result proved to have a moderating effect of some trainee's individual difference variables in the relationship between reaction and learning. Specifically, extraversion moderated the relationship between enjoyment and learning positively. Goal-orientation did not moderat the relationship between difficulty and learning. Extraversion had neigher main effect nor moderating effect on learning. Finally, limitation of the study and the direction for future research were discussed.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Heo, C., Jeon, B., & Shin, K. (2012). The relationship between reaction and learning in leadership training: Focus on moderating effect of trainee’s difference variable. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 25(2), 497–519.
Empirical Articles


이병희, 김동배 (2004). 기업교육훈련제도의 특성과 효과에 관한 연구. 한국노동연구원.
김안국 (2002). 기업 교육훈련제도의 효과에 대한 연구. 경제학연구, 50, 341-367.
노용진, 정원호 (2006). 기업 내 교육훈련의 생산성 효과와 조절변수. 산업노동연구, 12, 165-189.
류장수 (1997). 한국제조업의 교육훈련 투자규모와 결정요인, 경제학연구, 45, 4227- 4250.
성미송, 박영석 (2005). 조직 장면에서 2×2 성취목표모형의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 18, 97-117.
송영수 (2007) 국내 대기업의 인적자원개발(HRD) 동향: 대기업 HRD 관리자의 인식을 중심으로. 교육정보미디어연구, 13, 139-160.
신강현 (1997). 사무직 훈련 프로그램의 학습에 미치는 훈련투입 변수의 상호작용 효과. 미간행 석사학위 논문, 성균관대학교 대학원.
오인경 (2000). Kirkpatrick의 4단계 평가 모델에 따른 기업 내 웹 기반 교육의 학습 효과 평가. 기업교육연구, 2, 71-92.
임효창 (1999). 기업내 교육훈련의 전이 결정요인에 관한 연구: 사무직군을 중심으로, 미간행 박사학위논문, 서울대학교 대학원.
정영애 (2006) 기업교육훈련 전이 영향요인에 관한 연구. 인력개발연구, 18, 89-110.
Abernathy, D. (1999). Thinking outside the evaluation box. Training & Development Journal, 53, 18-23.
Alliger, G. M., & Horowitz, H. M. (1989). IBM takes the guessing out of testing. Training & Development Journal, 43, 69-73.
Alliger, G. M., & Janak, E. A. (1989), Kirkpatrick's levels of training criteria: Thirty years later. Personnel Psychology, 42, 331-342.
Alliger, G., Tannenbaum, S. I., Bennett W. JR., Traver H., & Shotland A. (1997). A meta- analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Arthur Jr, W., Bennett Jr, W., Edens, P. S. & Bell, S. T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta analysis of design and evaluation features, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 234-245.
Barret, A. & O'Connell, P. J. (2001). Does Training Generally Work? The Returns to In-Company Training. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 54, 647-662.
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: Meta-analysis, Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26.
Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K. & Judge, T. A. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium: what do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9, 9-30.
Bartel, A. P. (1994). Productivity Gains form the Implementation of Employee Training Programs. Industrial Relations, 33, 411-425.
Bassi, L. & McMurrer, D. (1998). Training investment can mean financial performance, Training & Development Journal, 52, 40-42.
Baumgartel, H., Reynolds, M., & Pathan, R. (1984). How personality and organizational- climate variables moderate the effectiveness of management development programs: A review and some recent research findings. Management and Labor Studies, 9. 1-16.
Bishop, J. H. (1991). On-the-Job Training of New Hires. Stem, D, & J. M. Ritzen(eds), Market Failure in Training, Springer-Verlag, 61-98.
Black, S. E. & Lynch, L. M. (1996). Human Capital Investments and Productivity. American Economic Review, 86, 263-267.
Black, S. E. & Lynch, L. M. (1997). How to Compete: The Impact of Workplace Practices and Information Technology on Productivity. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, No. 6120, Cambridge, Mass.
Blickle, G. (1996). Personality traits, learning strategies, and performance. European Journal of Personality, 10, 337-352.
Bolman, L. (1971). Some effects of trainers on theirs on their t-groups. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7, 309-326.
Brown, K. G. (2005). An examination of the structure and nomological network of trainee reactions: A closer look at “Smile Sheets”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 991-1001.
Busato, V. V., Prins, F. J., Elshout, J. J. & Hamaker, C. (2000). Intellectual ability, learning style, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 1057-1068.
Button, S. B., Mathieu, J. E., & Zajac, D. M. (1996). Goal orientation in organizational research: a conceptual and empirical Foundation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 26-48.
Caraway, K., Tucker, C. M., Reinke, W. M., Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal orientation, and fear or failure as predictors of school engagement in high school students. Psychology in the Schools, 40, 417-427.
Caspi, A., Chajut, E., Saporta, K., & Beyth- Marom, R. (2006). The influence of personalty on social participation in learning environments. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 129-144.
Champion, M. A., & Champion, J. E. (1987). Evaluation of an interviewee skills training program in a natural field experiment. Personnel Psychology, 40, 675-691.
Clement, R. W. (1982). Testing the hierarchy theory of training evaluation: An expanded role for trainee reactions. Public Personnel Management Journal, 11, 176-184.
Colquitt, J. A., & Simmering, M. J. (1998). Conscientiousness, goal orientation, and motivation to learn during the learning process: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 654-665.
Derry, D., & Reed, M. A. (1994). Temperament and attention: Orienting toward and away from positive and negative signals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1128-1139.
Dweck, C. S. (1986). Motivational processes affecting learning. American Psychologist, 41, 1040-1048.
Eden, D., & Shani, A. B. (1982). Pygmalion goes too boot camp: expectancy, leadership, and trainee performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 194-199.
Entwistle. N., & Entwistle. D. (1970). The relationship between personality, study methods and academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 40, 132-143.
Farsides, T. L., & Woodfield, R. (2003). Individual differences and undergraduate academic success: The roles of personality, intelligence and application. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 1225-1243.
Ford, J. K., Quinones, M. A., Sego, D. J. & Sorra, J. S. (1992). Factors affecting the opportunity to perform trained tasks on the job. Personnel Psychology, 45, 511-527.
Furnham, A., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2006). Personality, intelligence and general knowledge. Learning and Individual Difference, 16, 79-90.
Furnham, A., & Medhurst, S. (1995), Personality correlates of academic seminar behavior: A study of four instruments. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 197-208.
Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A Broad-Bandwidth, Public-Domain, Personality Inventory Measuring the Lower-Level Facets of Several Five-Factor Models. Personality Psychology in Europe, 7, 7-28.
Gray, J. A. (1981). A critique of Eysenk's theory of personality. In H. J. Eysenk(Ed.), A model for personality(pp.246-276). New York: Springer -Verlag.
Gray, J. A. (1991). Neural systems, emotion, and personality. In J. Madden IV(Ed.), Neurobiology of learning, emotion, and affect(pp.273-306). New York: Raven Press.
Griffin, B., & Hesketh, B. (2004). Why openness to experience is no a good predictor of job performance. International journal of selection and assessment, 12, 243-251.
Holzer, J. J., Block, R. N., Cheatam, M. & Knott, J. H. (1993). Are Training subsidies for Firms Effective? The Michigan Experience. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 46, 625- 636.
Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1998). Evaluating training programs. Berrett-Koehler Publishers San Francisco.
Kline, P. & Gale, A. (1971). Extraversion, neuroticism and performance in a psychology examination. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 41, 90-94.
Larsen, R. J., & Ketelaar, T. (1991). Personality and susceptibility to positive and negative emotional states. Journal of personality and social psychology, 61, 132-140.
Larsen, R. J., & Rusting, C. L. (1997). Extraversion, neuroticism, and susceptibility to positive and negative affect: A test of two theoretical models. Personality and Individual differences, 22, 607-612.
Lounsbury, J. W., Sundstro, E., Loveland, J. M., & Gibson, L. W. (2003). Intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive as predictors of course grade. Personality and Individual Differences, 35, 1231-1239.
Lucas, R. E. & Diener, E. (2001). Understanding extraverts' enjoyment of social situations: the importance of pleasantness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 343-356.
Morgan, R. B., & Casper, W. J. (2000). Examining the factor structure of participant reactions to training: A multidimensional approach. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11, 301-317.
Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R. & Strauss, J. P. (1999). The joint relationship of conscientiousness and ability with performance: Test of the interaction hypothesis. Journal of Management, 25, 707-721.
Noe, R. A. (1986). Trainees' Attributes and Attitudes: Neglected influences on training effectiveness. Academy of Management Review, 11, 736-749.
Pavot, W., Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1990). Extraversion and happiness, Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1299-1306.
Salgado, J. F. (1997). The five-factor model of personality and job performance in the European community. Journal of applied psychology, 82, 30-32.

Sanchez-Marin, M., Rejano-Infante, E., & Rodriguez -Troyano, Y. (2001). Personality and academic productivity in the university student. Social Behavior and Personality, 19, 299-305.
Van Buren, M. E. & Eskin, W. (2002). The 2002 ASTD state of Industrial report. Alexandria, VA: American Society of Training and Development. Veroff, J. (1969). Social comparison and the development of achievement motivation. In C. P. Smith(Ed.), Achievement-related motives in children. New York: Russell Sage.
Warr, P. & Bunce, D. (1995). Trainee characteristics and the outcomes of open learning. Personnel Psychology, 48, 347-375.
Warr, P., Allan, C., & Birdi, K. (1999). Predicting three level of training outcome. Journal of occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 351-375.
Wexley, K. N. & Baldwin, T. T. (1986). Posttraining strategies for facilitating positive transfer: an empirical exploration. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 503-520.