The effects of perceived overqualification and relative deprivation on knowledge hiding motivation: Moderated mediation of work meaningfulness

Main Article Content

Young-Il Kim
TaeYong Yoo


This study confirmed the mediating effect of relative deprivation in the effect of perceived overqualification on knowledge hiding motivation, and confirmed the moderated mediating effect of work meaningfulness. To verify the hypothesis, an online survey was conducted on 408 office workers working at various domestic companies. As a result of analyzing the survey responses, the mediating effect of relative deprivation was significant in the effect of perceived overqualification on knowledge hiding motivation. The work meaningfulness was found to have a significant mediating effect by moderated mediating effect of relative deprivation in the relationship between perceived overqualification and knowledge. This study confirmed that perceived overqualification increases knowledge hiding motivation through relative deprivation. We also found that work meaningfulness moderates the process by which perceived overqualification increases knowledge hiding motivation through relative deprivation. Specifically, we found that higher levels of work meaningfulness reinforced the effect of perceived overqualification on knowledge hiding motivation through relative deprivation. Based on the results of this study, we discuss the significance, implications, and limitations of this study.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Kim 영., & Yoo 태. (2023). The effects of perceived overqualification and relative deprivation on knowledge hiding motivation: Moderated mediation of work meaningfulness. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 36(4), 471–500. Retrieved from
Empirical Articles


고윤진, 유태용. (2020). 지식은폐 동기 척도 개발 및 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 33(1), 61-92.

고윤진, 유태용. (2022). 지식요청 동료의 심리적 특권의식에 대한 지식제공자의 인식이 지식은폐 행동에 미치는 영향: 지식은폐 동기의 매개효과와 상사 모니터링의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 35(1), 29-63.

김미소, 유태용. (2020), 지각된 과잉자격이 이직의도에 미치는 영향: 조직지원인식과 분배공정성 및 조절초점 성향의 상호작용을 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 33(3), 297-318.

남상희, 장재윤, 문혜진. (2021). 성취귀인과 진로미결정이 지각된 과잉자격에 미치는 영향: 전공몰입의 조절된 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 36(2), 213-238.

박지영, 정예슬. (2020). 인공지능의 유능함에 대한 인식이 직장인의 직무불안정성과 냉소주의에 미치는 영향: 일의 의미의 조절된 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 33(2), 145-175.

박천오. (2007). 우리나라의 공무원 징계와 퇴출. 한국행정학보, 41(3), 221-241.

세계일보. (2022). 사람인, 2022 채용결산 설문조사 발표

송상윤, 김하은. (2022). 성장과 고용 간 관계: 기업자료를 이용한 분석. BOK 이슈노트, 2022-11호.

신가희, 곽선화. (2017). 지식은폐와 지식공유의 영향요인과 관계에 관한 연구. 지식경영연구, 18(2), 129-157.

전국경제인연합회. (2022). 2022년 대학생 취업 인식도조사.

정유선, 박형인 (2017). 개인-직무 부합이 이직의도에 미치는 영향: 심리적 임파워먼트의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 30(2), 147-176.

최병권. (2002). 지식 공유 가로막는 내부의 적을 제거하라, LG경영연구원 CEO REPORT, 19-25

한태영, 이진영. (2021). 중장년 근로자의 세대조화 인식과 지식공유행동의 관계에서 ICT 스트레스 및 목표지향성의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 34(1), 81-104.

Abualoush, S., Masa’deh, R., Bataineh, K., & Alrowwad, A. (2018). The Role of Knowledge Management Process and Intellectual Capital as Intermediary Variables between Knowledge Management Infrastructure and Organization Performance. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 13, 279–309.

Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 267-299.

Agarwal, U. A., Avey, J., & Wu, K. (2022). How and when abusive supervision influences knowledge hiding behavior: evidence from India. Journal of Knowledge Management, 26(1), 209–231.

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Testing and interpreting interactions in multiple regression. Sage Publications.

Arain, G. A., Hameed, I., Khan, A. K., Strologo, A. D., & Dhir, A. (2022). How and when do employees hide knowledge from co-workers? Journal of Knowledge Management, 26(7), 1789-1806.

Arvan, M. L., Pindek, S., Andel, S. A., & Spector, P. E. (2019). Too good for your job? Disentangling the relationships between objective overqualification, perceived overqualification, and job dissatisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 115, 103323.

Babcock, P. (2004). Shedding light on knowledge management. HR Magazine, 49(5), 46-51.

Bolino, M. C., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). The antecedents and consequences of underemployment among expatriates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(8), 889–911.;2-g

Bunderson, J. S., & Thompson, J. A. (2009). The call of the wild: Zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(1), 32-57.

Buunk, B. P., Zurriaga, R., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Subirats, M. (2003). Engaging in upward and downward comparisons as a determinant of relative deprivation at work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(2), 370–388.

Carter, C., & Scarbrough, H. (2001). Towards a second generation of KM? The people management challenge. Education + Training, 43(4/5), 215–224.

Caruso, E. M., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2008). A wrinkle in time: Asymmetric valuation of past and future events. Psychological Science, 19(8), 796-801.

Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3): 425-445.

Connelly, C. E., Černe, M., Dysvik, A., & Škerlavaj, M. (2019). Understanding knowledge hiding in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40(7), 779-782.

Connelly, C. E., Zweig, D., Webster, J., & Trougakos, J. P. (2012). Knowledge hiding in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(1), 64-88.

Crosby, F. (1976). A model of egoistical relative deprivation. Psychological Review, 83(2), 85–113.

Crosby, F. (1984). Relative deprivation in organizational settings. In Staw, B. M. & Cummings, L. L. (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (pp. 51–93). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Dar, N., & Rahman, W. (2020). Two angles of overqualification-the deviant behavior and creative performance: The role of career and survival job. PLOS ONE, 15(1), e0226677.

Dobrow, S. R. (2013). Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(4), 431-452.

Dooley, D., & Prause, J. (1997). School-leavers’ self- esteem and unemployment: Turning point or a station on a trajectory? In I. H. Gotlib & B. Wheaton (Eds.), Trajectories and turning points: Stress and adversity over the life course. 91-113. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Edwards, J. Caplan, R. Harrison, V. (1998). Person-Environment Fit Theory: Conceptual Foundations, Empirical Evidence, and Directions for Future Research. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. N. (2009). Perceived overqualification and its outcomes: The moderating role of empowerment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 557-565.

Erdogan, B., Karaeminogullari, A., Bauer, T. N., & Ellis, A. M. (2020). Perceived Overqualification at Work: Implications for Extra-Role Behaviors and Advice Network Centrality. Journal of Management, 46(4), 583-606.

Erdogan, B., Karakitapoğlu‐Aygün, Z., Caughlin, D. E., Bauer, T. N., & Gumusluoglu, L. (2020). Employee overqualification and manager job insecurity: Implications for employee career outcomes. Human Resource Management, 59(6), 555-567.

Erdogan, B., Tomás, I., Valls, V., & Gracia, F. J. (2018). Perceived overqualification, relative deprivation, and person-centric outcomes: The moderating role of career centrality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 233–245.

Feldman, D. C. (1996). The nature, antecedents and consequences of underemployment. Journal of Management, 22(3), 385-407.

Ferris, G. R., & Mitchell, T. R. (1987). The components of social influence and their importance for human resources research. Research in personnel and human resources management, 5, 103-128. CT: JAI Press.

Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7(2), 117-140.

Fine, S., & Nevo, B. (2008). Too smart for their own good? A study of perceived cognitive overqualification in the workforce. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(2), 346–355.

Fine, S., & Nevo, B. (2011). Overqualified Job Applicants: We Still Need Predictive Models. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 4(2), 240–242.

Fischer, A. H., & Roseman, I. J. (2007). Beat them or ban them: The characteristics and social functions of anger and contempt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(1), 103–115.

Grant, A. M. (2008). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 108-124.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159–170.

Harari, M. B., Manapragada, A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2017). Who thinks they’re a big fish in a small pond and why does it matter? A meta-analysis of perceived overqualification. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 102, 28–47.

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.

Hu, J., Erdogan, B., Bauer, T. N., Jiang, K., Liu, S., & Li, Y. (2015). There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1228–1238.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Huo, W., Cai, Z., Luo, J., Men, C., & Jia, R. (2016). Antecedents and intervention mechanisms: a multi-level study of R&D team’s knowledge hiding behavior. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(5), 880–897.

Johnson, G. J., & Johnson, W. R. (1996). Perceived Overqualification and Psychological Well-Being. The Journal of Social Psychology, 136(4), 435–445.

Johnson, W. R., Morrow, P. C., & Johnson, G. J. (2002). An Evaluation of a Perceived Overqualification Scale Across Work Settings. The Journal of Psychology, 136(4), 425–441.

Joiner, T. (2005). Why people die by suicide. Harvard University Press.

Keller, A. C., Spurk, D., Baumeler, F., & Hirschi, A. (2016). Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 122–126.

Khan, J., Saeed, I., Ali, A., & Nisar, H. G. (2021). The mediating role of emotional exhaustion in the relationship between abusive supervision and employee cyberloafing behaviour. Journal of Management and Research, 160-178.

Khan, J., Saeed, I., Fayaz, M., Zada, M., & Jan, D. (2023). Perceived overqualification? Examining its nexus with cyberloafing and knowledge hiding behaviour: harmonious passion as a moderator. Journal of Knowledge Management, 27(2), 460-484.

Kim, N., & Shim, C. (2018). Social capital, knowledge sharing and innovation of small- and medium-sized enterprises in a tourism cluster. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(6), 2417–2437.

Koay, K. Y., & Lim, P. K. (2021). Ethical leadership and knowledge hiding: testing the mediating and moderating mechanisms. Journal of Knowledge Management, 26(3), 574-591.

Kristof, A. L. (1996). Person‐organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 1-49.

Lee, A., Erdogan, B., Tian, A., Willis, S., & Cao, J. (2021). Perceived overqualification and task performance: Reconciling two opposing pathways. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 94(1), 80-106.

Lee, C., Huang, G. H., & Ashford, S. J. (2018). Job insecurity and the changing workplace: Recent developments and the future trends in job insecurity research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 335-359.

Leheta, D., Dimotakis, N., & Schatten, J. (2017). The view over one’s shoulder: The causes and consequences of leader’s envy of followers. Leadership Quarterly, 28(3), 451–468.

Li, C. S., Liao, H., & Han, Y. (2021). I despise but also envy you: A dyadic investigation of perceived overqualification, perceived relative qualification, and knowledge hiding. Personnel Psychology, 75(1), 91-118.

Liu, S., & Wang, M. (2012). Perceived Overqualification: A Review and Recommendations for Research and Practice. Research in Occupational Stress and Well-Being, 1–42.

Liu, S., Luksyte, A., Zhou, L., Shi, J., & Wang, M. (2015). Overqualification and counterproductive work behaviors: Examining a moderated mediation model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(2), 250-271.

Luksyte, A., Bauer, T. N., Debus, M. E., Erdogan, B., & Wu, C.-H. (2022). Perceived Overqualification and Collectivism Orientation: Implications for Work and Nonwork Outcomes. Journal of Management, 48(2), 319-349.

‌Luksyte, A., Spitzmueller, C., & Maynard, D. C. (2011). Why do overqualified incumbents deviate? Examining multiple mediators. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 279–296.

‌Lysova, E. I., Allan, B. A., Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Steger, M. F. (2019). Fostering meaningful work in organizations: A multi-level review and integration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 374-389.

Ma, B.; Zhang, J. Are Overqualified Individuals Hiding Knowledge: The Mediating Role of Negative Emotion State. Journal of Knowledge Management, 26(3), 506-527.

Maynard, D. C., Joseph, T. A., & Maynard, A. M. (2006). Underemployment, job attitudes, and turnover intentions. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(4), 509–536.

Mottaz, C. (1984). Education and work satisfaction. Human Relations, 37(11), 985-1004.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Oelberger, C. R. (2019). The dark side of deeply meaningful work: Work‐relationship turmoil and the moderating role of occupational value homophily. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 558-588.

Osborne, D., Smith, H. J., & Huo, Y. J. (2012). More than a feeling: Discrete emotions mediate the relationship between relative deprivation and reactions to workplace furloughs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(5), 628–641.

Peng, H. (2013). Why and when do people hide knowledge? Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(3), 398-415.

Peters, M. A. (2017). Deep Learning, the final stage of automation and the end of work (Again)? Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management, 5(2), 154-168.

Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-Reports in Organizational Research: Problems and Prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.

Purohit, B. (2018). Salesperson performance: role of perceived overqualification and organization type. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 36(1), 79–92.

Reh, S., Tröster, C., & Van Quaquebeke, N. (2018). Keeping (future) rivals down: Temporal social comparison predicts coworker social undermining via future status threat and envy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(4), 399–415.

Ragab, M., & Arisha, A. (2013). Knowledge management and measurement: a critical review. Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(6), 873–901.‌

Rousseau, D. M. (2001). Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(4), 511-541.

Schachter, S. (1959). The psychology of affiliation: Experimental studies of the sources of gregariousness. Stanford Univer. Press.

Schreurs, B., Hamstra, M. R. W., Jawahar, I. M., & Akkermans, J. (2020). Perceived overqualification and counterproductive work behavior: testing the mediating role of relative deprivation and the moderating role of ambition. Personnel Review, 50(3), 1038-1055.

Shafique, I., Kalyar, M. N., Ahmad, B., & Pierscieniak, A. (2022). Moral exclusion in hospitality: testing a moderated mediation model of the relationship between perceived overqualification and knowledge-hiding behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 35(5), 1759-1778.

Sikora, D.M., Thompson, K.W., Russell, Z.A. & Ferris, G.R. (2016). Reimagining overqualified human resources to promote organisational effectiveness and competitive advantage. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 3(1), 23-42,

https://doi: 10.1108/JOEPP-03-2015-0012

Simon, L. S., Bauer, T. N., Erdogan, B., & Shepherd, W. (2019). Built to last: Interactive effects of perceived overqualification and proactive personality on new employee adjustment. Personnel Psychology, 72(2), 213–240.

Smith, H. J., Pettigrew, T. F., Pippin, G. M., & Bialosiewicz, S. (2012). Relative deprivation: A theoretical and meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(3), 203–232.

Spender, J.-C. & Grant, R. M. (1996). Knowledge and the firm: Overview. Strategic Management Journal, 17(S2), 5–9.

Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322-337.

Strik, N. P., Hamstra, M. R. W., & Segers, M. S. R. (2021). Antecedents of Knowledge Withholding: A Systematic Review & Integrative Framework. Group & Organization Management, 46(2), 223-251.

Suls, J., & Wheeler, L. (2000). A selective history of classic and neo-social comparison theory. Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research, 3-19.

van der Vegt, G. S., Bunderson, J. S., & Oosterhof, A. (2006). Expertness Diversity and Interpersonal Helping in Teams: Why those who Need the Most Help End Up Getting the Least. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 877–893.

van Dijk, H., Shantz, A., & Alfes, K. (2019). Welcome to the bright side: Why, how, and when overqualification enhances performance. Human Resource Management Review, 30(2), 100688.

van Vianen, A. E. (2018). Person–environment fit: A review of its basic tenets. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 75–101.

Voelpel, S. C., Dous, M., & Davenport, T. H. (2005). Five steps to creating a global knowledge-sharing system: Siemens’ ShareNet Academy of Management Perspectives, 19(2), 9–23.

Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115-131.

Wassermann, M., Fujishiro, K., & Hoppe, A. (2017). The effect of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants: Does host national identity matter? International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 61, 77-87.

Webster, J., Brown, G., Zweig, D., Connelly, C. E., Brodt, S., & Sitkin, S. (2008). Beyond knowledge sharing: Knowledge withholding at work. In J. J. Martocchio (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management Vol. 27 (pp. 1–37). Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing.

Yeşiltaş, M., Arici, H. E., & Sormaz, Ü. (2023). Does perceived overqualification lead employees to further knowledge hiding? The role of relative deprivation and ego depletion. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 35(5), 1880-1900.

‌Yu, L., Duffy,M. K., & Tepper, B. J. (2018). Consequences of downward envy: A model of self-esteem threat, abusive supervision, and supervisory leader self-improvement. Academy of Management Journal, 61(6), 2296–2318.

‌Zhang, L. N., Li, Y. M., & Cao, Y. (2017). The relationship study of perceived over qualification and knowledge sharing on team performance. In 3rd Annual 2017 International Conference on Management Science and Engineering (MSE 2017) (pp. 229-233). Atlantis Press.

‌Zhao, L., Zhao, S., Zeng, H., & Bai, J. (2021). To share or not to share? A moderated mediation model of the relationship between perceived overqualification and knowledge sharing. Baltic Journal of Management, 16(5), 681-698.

Zhong, J., Zhang, L., Xiao, H., & Wen, Q. (2021). Antecedents and consequences of follower moqi: leader humility, follower humility, and knowledge hiding. Current Psychology, 42(8), 6564-6575.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

<< < 1 2