Validation of Korean Version of Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale

Main Article Content

Yonguk Park
Jeong Hoon Seol
Jinsoo Choi
Hyejoo Lee
Young Woo Sohn


Despite the steadily increasing social and academic interest in work meaningfulness, access to this concept as a psychological construct remains insufficient. This study aimed to provide reliable and valid measurement of work meaningfulness for Korean employees by adapting the CMWS, a scale developed by Lips-Wiersma and Wright(2012), into Korean. To verify its validity, data for 516 full-time Korean employees were randomly divided into two groups, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. The analyses confirmed that the K-CMWS is a seven-factor structural model as shown in the original scale development study. In addition, by using the entire sample, the relationship between the CMWS and major variables related to work and life domains was verified for convergent and criterion validity. Finally, as a result of performing hierarchical regression analysis to verify the incremental validity of the CMWS for major job and organization-related outcome variables. The CMWS confirmed a significant incremental explanatory amount even while controlling for the existing work meaningfulness scales.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Park, Y., Seol, J. H., Choi, J., Lee, H., & Sohn, Y. W. (2022). Validation of Korean Version of Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 35(2), 213–245.
Empirical Articles


김근호, 장지현, 김성혜, 조아로, 장원섭 (2019). “일의 의미” 실증연구 동향: 2009 ~2018 년 국내⋅외 학술지 게재 논문을 대상으로. 기업교육과 인재연구, 21(1), 79-101. DOI:

김수진 (2014). 한국판 일의 의미 척도(Working As Meaning Inventory; WAMI) 타당화. 이화여자대학교 대학원, 석사학위논문.

나윤주 (2013). Oldenburg burnout inventory (OLBI)에 대한 타당화 연구. 아주대학교 대학원, 석사학위 논문.

심예린, 유성경 (2012). 한국판 소명 척도 (CVQ-K) 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및심리치료, 24(4), 847-872.

오동근 (2004). 일가치감의 직무효과성에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 17(3), 375-399.

오동근, 이영석, 김명언, 서용원 (2004). 일가치감 및 그 결정요인의 척도개발 및 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 17(2), 187-221.

원두리, 김교헌, 권선중 (2005). 한국판 삶의 의미척도의 타당화 연구: 대학생을 대상으로. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 10(2), 211- 225.

이순묵 (1994). 요인분석의 관행과 문제점. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 7(1), 1-27.

조은성, 하용수 (2017). 탐색적 요인분석에서 요인의 수 결정하기: SPSS R-MENU를 중심으로. 상품학연구, 35(6), 27-40. DOI:

최환규, 이정미 (2017). 한국판 일의 의미 척도 (K-WAMI)의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 31(4), 1-25.

탁진국, 서형준, 김혜선, 남동엽, 정희정, 권누리, 김소영, 정일진 (2015). 일의 의미 척도개발 및 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 28(3), 437-456.

탁진국, 서형준, 원용재, 심현주 (2017). 일의 의미 척도 구성타당도 검증: 직장인을 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 30(3), 357-372.

하유진, 최예은, 은혜영, 손영우 (2014). 한국판 다차원적 소명척도 (MCM-K) 의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(1), 191-220. DOI:

Allan, B. A. (2017). Task significance and meaningful work: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 102, 174-182. DOI:

Allan, B. A., Batz-Barbarich, C., Sterling, H. M., & Tay, L. (2019). Outcomes of meaningful work: A meta‐analysis. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 500-528. DOI:

Allen, N. & Meyer, J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affirmative, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18. DOI:

Ardichvili, A. & Kuchinke, K. P. (2009). International perspectives on the meanings of work and working: Current research and theory. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), 155-167. DOI:

Bailey, C., Lips-Wiersma, M., Madden, A., Yeoman, R., Thompson, M., & Chalofsky, N. (2019). The five paradoxes of meaningful work: Introduction to the special issue ‘meaningful work: Prospects for the 21st century’. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 481-499. DOI:

Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford Press.

Baumeister, R. F. & Landau, M. J. (2018). Finding the meaning of meaning: Emerging insights on four grand questions. Review of General Psychology, 22(1), 1-10. DOI:

Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2002). The pursuit of meaningfulness in life. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 608–618). Oxford University Press.

Bellah, R. N., Madsen, R., Sullivan, W. M., Swidler, A., & Tipton, S. M. (1985). Habits of the heart: Individualism and commitment in American life. University of California Press Berkeley.

Blustein, D. L. (2006). The psychology of working: A new perspective for counseling, career development, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Blustein, D. L. (2008). The role of work in psychological health and well-being: A conceptual, historical, and public policy perspective. American Psychologist, 63(4), 228- 240. DOI:

Caillier, J. G. (2021). The impact of workplace aggression on employee satisfaction with job stress, meaningfulness of work, and turnover intentions. Public Personnel Management, 50(2), 159-182. DOI:

Chaudhary, R. (2020). Deconstructing work meaningfulness: Sources and mechanisms. Current Psychology, 1-14. DOI:

Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and validation of the calling and vocation questionnaire (CVQ) and brief calling scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 242-263. DOI:

Duffy, R. D., Blustein, D. L., Diemer, M. A., & Autin, K. L. (2016). The psychology of working theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(2), 127-148. DOI:

Elangovan, A. R., Pinder, C. C., & McLean, M. (2010). Callings and organizational behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 428-440. DOI:

Frankl, V. E. (1959). Man’s search for meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.

Geldenhuys, M., Laba, K., & Venter, C. M. (2014). Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 40(1), 1-10. DOI:

Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16(2), 250-279. DOI:

Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: Global edition. UK: Pearson Education Limited.

Halbesleben, J. R. & Demerouti, E. (2005). The construct validity of an alternative measure of burnout: Investigating the English translation of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Work & Stress, 19(3), 208-220. DOI:

Haslam, S. A., Powell, C., & Turner, J. C. (2000). Social identity, self-categorization, and work motivation: Rethinking the contribution of the group to positive and sustainable organizational outcomes. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(3), 319–339. DOI:

Helliwell, J. F., Layard, R., Sachs, J. D. & Neve, J. D. (2020). World Happiness Report 2020.

Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. DOI:

Jahoda, M. (1979). The impact of unemployment in the 1930s and 1970s. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 32, 309–314.

Kim, B. J., Nurunnabi, M., Kim, T. H., & Jung, S. Y. (2018). The influence of corporate social responsibility on organizational commitment: The sequential mediating effect of meaningfulness of work and perceived organizational support. Sustainability, 10(7), 2208. DOI:

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. The Guilford Press.

Kraimer, M. L., Seibert, S. E., & Liden, R. C. (1999). Psychological empowerment as a multidimensional construct: A test of construct validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(1), 127-142. DOI:

Lambert, N. M., Stillman, T. F., Hicks, J. A., Kamble, S., Baumeister, R. F., & Fincham, F. D. (2013). To belong is to matter: Sense of belonging enhances meaning in life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(11), 1418- 1427. DOI:

Lepisto, D. A. & Pratt, M. G. (2017). Meaningful work as realization and justification: Toward a dual conceptualization. Organizational Psychology Review, 7(2), 99-121. DOI:

Lips-Wiersma, M. & Wright, S. (2012). Measuring the meaning of meaningful work: Development and validation of the Comprehensive Meaningful Work Scale (CMWS). Group & Organization Management, 37(5), 655-685. DOI:

Long, E. C. & Jenkins, M. (2018, July). Mindful Moments: Fluctuations in Meaningfulness, State Mindfulness, and CWB. Academy of Management Proceedings. DOI:

Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572. DOI:

Lysova, E. I., Allan, B. A., Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Steger, M. F. (2019). Fostering meaningful work in organizations: A multi-level review and integration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 374-389. DOI:

MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1(2), 130-149. DOI:

Martela, F. & Steger, M. F. (2016). The three meanings of meaning in life: Distinguishing coherence, purpose, and significance. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(5), 531-545. DOI:

May, D. R., Gilson, L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37. DOI:

Michaelson, C. (2005). Meaningful motivation for work motivation theory. Academy of Management Review, 30(2), 235-238. DOI:

Michaelson, C., Pratt, M. G., Grant, A. M., & Dunn, C. P. (2014). Meaningful work: Connecting business ethics and organization studies. Journal of Business Ethics, 121(1), 77-90. DOI:

OECD (2020). Hours worked(indicator). Retrieved from 21 December 2020. DOI:

Park, C. L. (2010). Making sense of the meaning literature: An integrative review of meaning making and its effects on adjustment to stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 257-301. DOI:

Pratt, M. G. (2000). The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: Managing identification among Amway distributors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45(3), 456-493. DOI:

Pratt, M. G. & Ashforth, B. E. (2003). Fostering meaningfulness in working and at work. Chapter 20. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 309-327). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Reeves, R. & Venator, J. (2014). Jingle-jangle fallacies for non-cognitive factors. Washington, DC: Brooking Institution. memos/2014/12/19/jingle-jangle-fallacies-for-non-cognitive-factors

Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91-127. DOI:

Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 319-338. DOI:

Seibert, S. E., Wang, G., & Courtright, S. H. (2011). Antecedents and consequences of psychological and team empowerment in organizations: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(5), 981-1003. DOI:

Shamir, B. (1991). Meaning, self, and motivation in organizations. Organization Studies, 12(3), 405-424. DOI:

Sharma, A. (2019). Meaningfulness of work and perceived organizational prestige as precursors of organizational citizenship behavior. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 7(1), 316-323. DOI:

Soane, E., Shantz, A., Alfes, K., Truss, C., Rees, C., & Gatenby, M. (2013). The association of meaningfulness, well‐being, and engagement with absenteeism: A moderated mediation model. Human Resource Management, 52(3), 441-456. DOI:

Sparks, J. R. & Schenk, J. A. (2001). Explaining the effects of transformational leadership: An investigation of the effects of higher‐order motives in multilevel marketing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 22(8), 849-869.

Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1442-1465. DOI:

Sparks, J. R. & Schenk, J. A. (2001). Explaining the effects of transformational leadership: an investigation of the effects of higher‐order motives in multilevel marketing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 22(8), 849-869. DOI:

Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(1), 80-93. DOI:

Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322-337. DOI:

Stillman, T. F., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Uncertainty, belongingness, and four needs for meaning. Psychological Inquiry, 20(4), 249-251. DOI:

Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Lambert, N. M., Crescioni, A. W., DeWall, C. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Alone and without purpose: Life loses meaning following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 686-694. DOI:

Wang, Z. & Xu, H. (2019). When and for whom ethical leadership is more effective in eliciting work meaningfulness and positive attitudes: The moderating roles of core self-evaluation and perceived organizational support. Journal of Business Ethics, 156(4), 919-940. DOI:

Wrzesniewski, A. E. (1999). Jobs, careers, and callings: Work orientation and job transitions. [Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan]

Wrzesniewski, A. E., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(1), 21-33. DOI:

Most read articles by the same author(s)