The effects of personality and leader consideration behavior on team cohesiveness The investigation of sequential mediating effects of relationship conflict and psychological safety

Main Article Content

Youngshik Kim
InHye Kim

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of personality (openness, neuroticism) and leader consideration behavior on team cohesiveness. The present study tests the mediating effect of psychological safety in the relationship between personality (openness, neuroticism) and team cohesiveness. While openness and neuroticism were examined as individual-level variables, leader consideration behavior, relationship conflict, psychological safety, and team cohesiveness were analyzed in team-level. Sequential mediation effects of relationship conflict and psychological safety on the relationship between leader consideration behavior and team cohesiveness were also examined. Data were collected from a total of 35 teams comprised of 194 students using survey. The results showed that psychological safety mediated the relationship between neuroticism and team cohesiveness. However, the mediating effect of openness was not significant. Moreover, relationship conflict and psychological safety sequentially mediated the relationship between leader consideration behavior and team cohesiveness. Based on these results, implications, limitations of research, and suggestions for the future research are discussed.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
 

Article Details

Section
Empirical Articles

References

김영식, 서용원 (2018). 조직동료의식의 개념화 및 척도개발 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 31(1), 1-31.
김영식, 한성호, 서용원 (2017). 과업갈등이 관계갈등에 미치는 영향에 대한 조절효과: 관계의 질과 개인차에 따라서. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 30(3), 415-441.
박재환, 김우종 (2014). HEXACO 성격요인과 창업가정신, 기업성과 간의 관련성 연구. 중소기업연구, 36(2), 147-168.
이은경, 탁진국 (2010). 상사의 정서지능이 부하의 조직몰입, 직무만족에 미치는 영향: 리더행동의 매개효과를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23(1), 1-25.
조려 (2012). 성격특성, 직무만족과 직무성과, 주관적인 행복감의 관계연구. 충남대학교 석사학위논문.
조인철, 김명소 (2010). 이탈과 관련된 역기능적 성격요인의 구성 타당화 및 대학생활 효과성에 미치는 영향에 관한 탐색적 연구: HDS(Hogan Development Survey)를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23 (3), 575-603.
홍세희 (2000). 구조 방정식 모형의 적합도 지수 선정기준과 그 근거. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 19(1), 161-177.
Atwater, L. (1988). The relative importance of situational and individual variables in predicting leader behavior: the surprising impact of subordinate trust. Group & Organization Studies, 13(3), 290-310.
Baer, M., & Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is not enough: Climates for initiative and psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 45-68.
Barrick, M. R., Stewart, G. L., Neubert, M. J., & Mount, M. K. (1998). Relating member ability and personality to work-team processes and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 377-391.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. New York: The Free Press.
Behfar, K. J., Mannix, E. A., Peterson, R. S., & Trochim, W. M. (2011). Conflict in small group: The meaning and consequences of process conflict. Small Group Research, 42(2), 127-176.
Berkowitz, L. (1981). On the difference between internal and external reactions to legitimate and illegitimate frustrations: A demonstration. Aggressive Behavior, 7(2), 83-96.
Beus, J. M., Muñoz, G. J., & Arthur, W. Jr. (2015). Personality as a multilevel predictor of climate: An examination in the domain of workplace safety. Group & Organization Management, 40(5), 625-656.
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski(Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations (pp. 349-381), San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.
Bliese, P. D., & Halverson, R. R. (1996). Individual and nomothetic models of job stress: An examination of work hours, cohesion, and well-being. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26(13), 1171-1189.
Bradley, B. H., Anderson, H. J., Baur, J. E., & Klotz, A. C. (2015). When Conlfict Helps: Integrating evidence for beneficial conflict in groups and team under three perspectives, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19(4), 243-272.
Bradley, B. H., Postlethwaite, B. E., Klotz, A. C., Hamdani, M. R., & Brown, K. G. (2012). Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 151-158.
Brewer, M. B. (1995). Managing diversity: The role of social identities. In S. E. Jeackson & M. N. Ruderman (Eds.), Diversity in work teams: Research paradigms for a changing workplace (pp. 47-68). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Brewer, M. B. (1996). When contact is not enough: Social identity and intergroup cooperation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20, 291-303.
Bolger, N., & Zuckerman, A. (1995). A framework for studying personality in the stress process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 890-902.
Bono, J. E., Boles, T. L., Judge, T. A., & Lauver, K. J. (2002). The role of personality in task and relationship conflict. Journal of Personality, 70, 311-344.
Carmeli, A., Sheaffer, Z., Binyamin, G., Reiter-palmon, R., & Shimoni, T. (2013). Transformational leadership and creative problem-solving: The mediating role of psychological safety and reflexivity. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 48(2), 115-135.
Choi, K., & Cho, B. (2011). Competing hypotheses analysis of the associations between group task conflict and group relationship conflict. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 1106-1126.
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1988). From catalog to classification: Murray's needs and the five-factor model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 258-265.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO-PI-R Professional Manual, Psychological Assessment Resources.
Crossan, M. M., & Apaydin, M. (2010). A multi-dimensional framework of organizational innovation: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 1154-1191.
De Dreu, C. K. W. (2011). Conflict at work: Basic principles and applied issues. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol 3: Maintaining, expanding, and contracting the organization(pp. 461-493). Washington, DC: American Psychology Association.
De Dreu, C. K. W., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2005). The possessive self as a barrier to conflict resolution: Effects of more ownership process accountability, and self concept clarity on competitive cognitions and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 345-357.
De Dreu, C. K. W., & West, M. A. (2001). Minority dissent and team innovation: The importance of participation in decision making, Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1191-1201.
de Wit, F. R. C., Greer, L. L., & Jehn, K. A. (2012). The paradox of intragroup conflict: A meta analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 360-390.
Derue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and Behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 7-52.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256- 273.
Festinger, L., Schachter, S., & Back, K. W. (1950). Social pressures in informal groups. New York: Harper.
Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350-383.
Edmondson, A. C., & Lei, Z. (2014). Psychological safety: the history, renaissance, and future of the interpersonal construct. Annual review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational behavior, 1, 23-43.
Edmondson, A. C., & Mogelof, J. P. (2005). Explaining psychological safety in innovation teams: Organizational culture, team dynamics, or personality? In LL Thompson & C Choi(Eds.), Creativity and Innovations in organizational teams(pp. 109-136). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations.
Elliot, E. S., & Dweck, C. S. (1988). Gaol: An approach to motivation and achievement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 5-12.
Fleishman, E. A. (1973). Twenty years of consideration and structure. In E. A. Fleishman & J. G. Hunt(eds.), Current developments in the study of leadership. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Forsyth , D. R. (2014). 집단역학 5판 {Group dynamics}. (남기덕, 노혜경, 안미영, 이종택, 이진환, & 최훈석 역). 서울 CENGAGE LEARNING. (원전은 2010년에 출판).
Frazier, M. L., Fainshmidt, S., Klinger, R., Pezeshkan, A., & Vracheva, V. (2017). Psychological safety: A meta-analytic review and extension. Personnel Psychology, 70, 113-165.
Gibson, C. B., & Gibbs, J. L. (2006). Unpacking the concept of virtuality
Greene, C. N. (1973). A longitudinal analysis of relationships among leader behavior and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Proceedings, Academy of Management, Boston, 438-439.
Harrison, D. A., Price, K. H., & Bell, M. P. (1998). Beyond relational demography: Time and the effects of surface- and deep-level diversity on work group cohesion. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 96-107.
Hoegl, M., & Gemuenden, H. G. (2001). Teamwork quality and the success of innovative projects: a theoretical concept and empirical evidence. Organization Science, 12(4), 435-49.
Holtz, B. C., & Harold, C. M. (2013). Effects of leadership consideration and structure on employee perceptions of justice and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34, 492-519.
Homan, A. C. & Greer, L. L. (2013). Considering diversity: The positive effects of considering leadership in diverse teams. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 16(1), 105-125.
Hough, L. M. (1992). The “Big Five” personality variables-construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human Performance, 5, 139-155.
House, R. J. (1996). Path-goal theory of leadership: Lessons, legacy, and a reformulated theory. Leadership Quarterly, 7, 323-352.
Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1984). : An Assessment of within-group interrater agreement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 306-309.
Jehn, K. A. (1994). “Enhancing effectiveness: An investigation of advantages and disadvantages of value-based intragroup conflict”. International Journal of Conflict Management, 5, 223-238.
Jehn, K. A. (1995). A multimethod examination of the benefits and detriments of intragroup conflict. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 256-282.
Jehn, K. A. (1997). A Qualitative analysis of conflict types and dimensions in organizational groups. Administrative Science Quarterly, 42, 530-557.
Jehn, K. A., & Mannix, E. A. (2001). The dynamic nature of conflict: A longitudinal study of intragroup conflict and group performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 238-251.
John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big 5 trait taxonomy: History, Measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin & O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research(2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford.
Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., & Ilies, R. (2004). The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(1), 36-51.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692-724.
Kark, R., & Carmeli, A. (2009). Alive and creating: The mediating of vitality and aliveness in the relationship between psychological safety and creative work involvement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 785-804.
Kennedy-Moore, E., & Watson, J. C. (1999). Expressing emotion: Myths, realities, and therapeutic strategies. New York: The Guilford Press.
Keyes, C. L., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 1007-1022.
Korsgaard, M. A., Schweiger, D. M., & Sapienza, H. J. (1995). Building commitment, attachment, and trust in strategic decision making teams: the role of procedural justice. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 60-84.
Kozlowski, S. W., & Ilgen, D. R. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7(3), 77-124.
Labianca, G., Brass, D. J., & Gray, B. (1998). Social networks and perceptions of intergroup conflict: The role of negative relationships and third parties. Academy of Management Journal, 41(1), 55-67.
Lambert, L. S., Tepper, B. J., Carr, J. C., Holt, D. T., & Barelka, A. J. (2012). Forgotten but not gone: An examination of fit between leader consideration and initiating structure needed and received. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 913-930.
Leary, M. R., & Atherton, S. C. (1986). Attributional mediators of social inhibition and avoidance. Journal of Personality, 54(4), 704-716.
Lepine, J. A. (2003). Team adaptation and post-change performance: Effects of team composition in terms of members' cognitive ability and personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 27-39.
Lord, R. G. (1977). Functional leadership behavior: Measurement and relation to social power and leadership perceptions. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 114-133.
MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593-614.
Mathews, A., & MacLeod, C. (1985). Selective processing of threat cues in anxiety states. Behavior Research and Therapy, 23(5), 563-569.
Mathieu, J., Maynard, M. T., Rapp, T., & Gilson, L. (2008). Team effectiveness 1997-2007: A review of recent advancements and a glimpse into the future. Journal of Management, 34(3), 410-476.
MacCrae, R. R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1258-1265.
McCrae, R. R. (1996). Social Consequences of experiential openness. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 323-337.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. Jr. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist, 52, 509-516.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. Jr. (2008). Empirical and theoretical status of the five-factor model of personality. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Personality theory and assessment(Vol. 1, pp. 273-294). LA: Sage.
McFatter, R. M. (1998). Emotional intensity: Some components and their relations to extraversion and neuroticism. Personality and Individual Differences, 24, 747-758.
Meyer, J. P., Bobocel, D. R., & Allen, N. J. (1991). Development of organizational commitment during the first year of employment: A longitudinal study of pre-and post-entry influences. Journal of Management, 17(4), 717-733.
Myers, A. E. (1962). Team competition, success, and the adjustment of group members. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65, 325-332.
Nembhard, I. M., & Edmondson, A. C. (2006). Making it safe: The effects of leader inclusiveness and professional status on psychological safety and improvement efforts in health care teams. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 941-966.
Nicholson, N., Soane, E., Fenton-O'Creevy, M., & William, P. (2005). Personality and domain- specific risk taking. Journal of Risk Research, 8(2), 157-176.
Pelled, L. (1996). Demographic diversity, conflict, and work group outcomes: An investigating process theory. Organization Science, 7, 615-631.
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. (1975). Determinants of supervisory behavior: a role set analysis, Human Relations, 28(2), 139-154.
Pillai, R., & Williams, E. A. (2004). Transformational leadership, self-efficacy, group cohesiveness, commitment and performance. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2), 144-159.
Preacher, K. J. & Selig, J. P. (2012). Advantages of Monte Carlo Confidence Intervals for Indirect Effects. Communication Methods and Measures, 6(2), 77-98.
Prenda, K. M., & Lachman, M. E. (2001). Planning for the future: A life management strategy for increasing control and life satisfaction in adulthood. Psychology and Aging, 16, 206-216.
Reilly, R., Lynn, G., & Aronson, Z. (2002). The role of personality in new product development team performance. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 19, 39-58.
Sarros, J. C., Gray, J. H., & Densten, I. (2002). “Leadership and its impact on organizational culture.” International Journal of Business Studies, 10(2), 1-26.
Schriesheim, J. F. (1980). The social context of leader-surbordinate relations: An investigation of the effects of group cohesiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 65(2), 183-194.
Schein, E. H., & Bennis, W. G. (1965). Personal and organizational change through group methods: The laboratory approach. New York, NY: Wiley
Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Audiences' reactions to self-enhancing, self-denigrating, and accurate self-presentations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18(1), 89-104.
Seashore, S. E. (1954). Group cohesiveness in the industrial work group. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Simons, T. L., & Peterson, R. S. (2000). Task conflict and relationship conflict in top management teams: The pivotal role of intragroup trust. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 102-111.
Swann, W. B., Jr., Polzer, J. T., Seyle, D. C., & Ko, S. J. (2004). Finding value in diversity: Verification of personal and social self-views in diverse groups. Academy of Management Review, 29, 9-27.
Totterdell, P., & Niven, K. (2012). Momentary affective states: Moods and discrete emotions. In H. M. Weiss (Ed.), Handbook of work attitudes and affect. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tynan, R. (2005). The effects of threat sensitivity and face giving on dyadic psychological safety and upward communication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(2), 223-247.
Weiss, H. M. (1977). Subordinate imitation of supervisor behavior: the role of modeling in organizational socialization. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 19, 89-105.
Wendt, H., Euwema, M. C., & van Emmerik, I. J. H. (2009). Leadership and team cohesiveness across cultures. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 358-370.
Yukl, G. A. (2010). Leadership in organizations(7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.