The influences of career future time perspective on job attitudes and career behaviors

Main Article Content

InJo Park
Juil Rie


This study investigated the impacts of career future time perspective on occupational self-efficacy, organizational commitment, career commitment, turnover intention, and career development. Data was collected from full-time employees (N = 400) working at various private companies through online survey. The results from path model showed that career future time perspective influenced occupational self-efficacy, organizational commitment, career commitment, turnover intention, and career development. Additionally, the results from multi-group analysis indicated that the path from career future time perspective to career commitment was different along with age and job title. The results of this study suggested that career future time perspective has predictive role in job attitudes and career behavior among employees.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Empirical Articles


박인조 (2015). 경력 미래시간 조망이 경력 결정 및 경력 행동에 미치는 영향. 한림대학교 대학원 박사학위논문.
박인조, 이주일 (2014). 무엇이 장노년의 주관적 경력 성공에 영향을 미치고 받는가?: 시간적 관점에서 조명. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(1), 83-105.
신영숙 (2010). 경력계획 실천을 위한 행동(behavior) 문항 개발. HRD 연구(구 인력개발연구), 12(1), 65-85.
이주일 (2013). 안전애착, 5요인성격, 미래시간 관점이 생산적 노년에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 26(2), 341- 370.
오은혜, 탁진국 (2012). 경력계획이 주관적 경력성공에 미치는 영향: 긍정심리자본의 매개효과와 미래시간전망과 코칭리더십의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 25(4), 727-748.
Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of occupational psychology, 63(1), 1-18.
Aryee, S., & Tan, K. (1992). Antecedents and outcomes of career commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 1992, 40, 288-305.
Bedeian, A., Kemery, E., & Pizzolatto, A. (1991). Career commitment and expected utilityof present job as predictors of turnover intentions and turnover behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 331-343.
Blau, G. J. (1985). The measurement and prediction of career commitment. Journal of occupational Psychology, 58(4), 277-288.
Blau, G. (1989). Testing generalizability of a career commitment measure and its impact on employeeturnover. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35, 88-103.
Busseri, M. A., Malinowski, A., & Choma, B. L. (2013). Are optimists oriented uniquely toward the future? Investigating dispositional optimism from a temporally-expanded perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 47(5), 533-538.
Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: Atheory of socio-emotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165-181.
Carstensen, L. L., & Lang, F. R. (1996). Future time perspective scale. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University.
Cate, R. A., & John, O. P. (2007). Testing models of the structure and development of future time perspective: maintaining a focus on opportunities in middle age. Psychology and Aging, 22(1), 186-201.
Chang, E. (1999). Career commitment as a complex moderator of organizational commitment and turnover intention. Human Relations, 52(10), 1257-1278.
Cherness, C. (1991). Career commitment in human service professionals: A biographical study. Human Relations, 44(5), 419-437.
Deci, E. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York, London.
Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Gjesme, T. (1979). Future time orientation as a function of achievement motives, ability, delay of gratification, and sex. The Journal of Psychology, 101(2), 173-188.
Hayes, L. J., O’Brien-Pallas, L., Duffield, C., Shamian, J., Buchan, J., Hughes, F., Laschinger, H. K. S., North, N., Stone, P. W. (2006). Nurse turnover: aliterature review. International Journal of Nursing Studies 43, 237.263.
Hoyle, R. H., & Sherrill, M. R. (2006). Future Orientation in the Self System: Possible Selves, Self Regulation, and Behavior. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1673-1696.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
Husman, J., & Shell, D. F. (2001). The Multivariate Dimensionality of Personal Control and Future Time Perspective Beliefs in Achievement and Self-Regulation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(4), 481-506.
James, W. (1910). The Varieties of Religous Experience. Library of Alexandria.
Kaldenberg, D. O., Becker, B. W., & Zvonkovic, A. (1995). Work and commitment among young professionals: A study of male and female dentists. Human Relations, 48, 1355-1377.
Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee. Academy of Management Review, 19: 51-89.
Lens, W., Paixao, M. P., Herrera, D., & Grobler, A. (2012). Future time perspective as a motivational variable: Content and extension of future goals affect the quantity and quality of motivation. Japanese Psychological Research, 54(3), 321-333.
Lepper, M. R., & Greene, D. E. (1978). The hidden costs of reward: New perspectives on the psychology of human motivation. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Levinson, S. E. (1986). Continuously variable duration hidden Markov models for automatic speech recognition. Computer Speech & Language, 1(1), 29-45.
MacKinnon DP, Lockwood CM, Williams J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 39: 99-128.
Marko, K. W., & Savickas, M. L. (1998). Effectiveness of a career time perspective intervention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 52(1), 106-119.
Markus, H., Cross, S., & Wurf, E. (1990). The role of the self-system in competence. Markus, Hazel; Cross, Susan; Wurf, Elissa Sternberg, Robert J. (Ed); KolligianJohn, Jr. (Ed), Competence considered. New Haven, CT, US: Yale University Press, xv, 420, 205-225.
Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American psychologist, 41(9), 954.
Markus, H., & Ruvolo, A. (1989). Possible selves: Personalized representations of goals. (pp.211- 241). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, viii, 509.
Mathieu, J., & Zajac, D. A. (1990). Review and me ta-analysis of the antece de nts, correlates, andconsequences of organizational commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 171-194.
Michaels, C. E., & Spector, P. E. (1982). Causes of employeeturnover: A test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67: 53-59.
Miller, R. B., & Brickman, S. J. (2004). A model of future-oriented motivation and self- regulation Educational Psychology Review, 16(1), 9-33.
Mitchell, T. R., Holtom, B. C., Lee, T. W., Sablynski, C. J., & Erez, M. (2001). Why people stay: Using job embeddednessto predict voluntary turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 1102-1121.
Mobley, W. (1977). Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and emloyee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(2) 237-240.
Morrow, P. (1993). The theory and measurement of work commitment. Greenwich: Jay Press Ltd.,
Nuttin, J. (1984). Motivation, planning, and action. Hillsdale, NJ.
Nuttin, J., & Lens, W. (1985). Future time Perspective and Motivation: Theory and Research Method, Leuven University Press, Leuven, Belgium.
Oyserman, D., & Markus, H. (1990). Possible selves in balance: Implications for delinquency. Journal of Social Issues, 46(2), 141-157.
Park, H. Y., Christie, R. L., & Sype, G. E. (2014). Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention in Union and Non-Union Firms. SAGE Open, 4(1), 2158244013518928.
Parker, S. K. & C. G. Collins (2010), Taking stock: Integrating and differentiating multiple proactive behaviors, Journal of Management, 36, 633-662.
Tzelgov, J., & Henik, A. (1991). Suppression situations in psychological research: Definitions, implications, and applications. Psychological Bulletin, 109(3), 524.
Rigotti, T., Schyns, B. & Mohr, G. (2008). A short version of the Occupational self-efficacy scale. Structural and construct validity across five countries. Journal of Career Assessment, 16, 238-255.
Ringle, P. M., & Savickas, M. L. (1983). Administrative leadership: Planning and time perspective. The Journal of Higher Education, 649-661.
Savickas, M. L. (1991). The Meaning of Work and Love: Career Issues and Interventions. The Career Development Quarterly, 39(4), 315-324.
Savickas, M. L., Silling, S. M., & Schwartz, S. (1984). Time perspective in vocational maturity and career decision making. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 25(3), 258-269.
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219.
Schyns, B. & Collani, G. v. (2002). A new occupational self-efficacy scale and its relation to personality constructs and organizational variables. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 219-241.
Seginer, R. (2009). Future orientation. Springer.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422.
Steel, R. P., & Ovalle, N. K. (1984). A review and meta-analysis of research on the relationship between behavioral intentions and employee turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 673-686.
Strauss, K., Griffin, M. A., & Parker, S. K. (2012). Future work selves: How salient hoped-for identities motivate proactive career behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 580-598.
Teahan, J. E. (1958). Future time perspective, optimism, and academic achievement. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 57(3), 379.
Tourangeau, A. E., Cranley, L. A. (2006). Nursing intention to remainemployed: understanding and strengthening determinants. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 55, 497-509.
Tzelgov, J., & Henik, A. (1991). Suppression situations in psychological research: Definitions, implications, and applications. Psychological Bulletin, 109(3), 524.
Walker, T. L., & Tracey, T. J. (2012). Perceptions of occupational prestige: Differences between African American and White college students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(1), 76-81.
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The development of competence beliefs, expectancies for success, and achievement values from childhood through adolescence. Development of Achievement Motivation, 91-120.
Zacher, H., & Frese, M., (2009). Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective. Psychology and Aging, 24(2), 487-493.