Positive and negative effects of anger expression in workplace Differences between when expressing and receiving anger

Main Article Content

Eunyoung Park
Juil Rie


In this study, we conducted a study based on the possibility that expressing anger in organization could lead to positive effects as well as negative effects, and compared when expressing anger and receiving other’s anger. This study is divided into Study 1 and Study 2. and the purpose of Study 1 was to construct questionnires on the ways of anger expression and the effects of anger expression in organizational settings. As a result, the ways of anger expression were divided into linguistic anger expression and behavioral anger expression. The effect of anger expression was divided into a positive level and a negative level. The purpose of Study 2 was to examine the relation between the ways of anger expression and the effects of anger expression and the moderating effect of self-consciousness through the items constructed in Study 1. Results of analysis of the data from 271 organizational members are as follows. First, expressing anger was positively related to both positive and negative effects of anger expression, and receiving anger was positively related to the negative effects of anger expression. Second, Self-consciousness significantly moderated the relationship between the receiving anger and the effect of anger expression. Second, Self-consciousness had a moderating effect on receiving anger on the effect of anger expression. Specifically, the moderating effect of private-public self consciousness was statistically significant in the effects of receiving anger on the positive effect of anger expression.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Empirical Articles


김용섭 (1984). 분노에 대한 연구. 고신대학 논문집, 12, 71-90.
김은정 (1993). 자기이해와 진로탐색 프로그램에 대한 평가. 연세생활연구, 제 9권, 171- 177.
문소현 (2006). 중년남성의 분노, 심혈관 건강과 우울의 관계: 사회적지지의 매개효과. 대한간호학회지, 36(5), 863-971.
송지은, 황순택, 전미주 (2009). 분노수준과 분노표현양식의 관계: 연령집단 간 비교. 한국심리학회지: 학교, 6(2), 213-227.
원상석 (2008). 군 조직에서 상사의 분노 표현 방식이 부하의 직무 탈진에 미치는 영향: 절차공정성의 조절효과를 중심으로. 고려대학교 석사학위논문.
유주현 (2001). 정서표현에 대한 양가감정과 사회적지지 및 심리적 안녕감과의 관계. 고려대학교 대학원 석사학위논문.
이슬기, 장재윤 (2014). 상사의 분노표출이 창의 과정 몰입에 미치는 영향: 부정 정서의 매개효과와 리더 동일시의 조절 효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(2), 339- 366.
이주일 (2003). 조직 장면에서의 분노, 불안, 우울 정서-정서 간 유발 상황과 대처방식의 차이 및 정서의 조절과 심리적 안녕, 직무효과 간의 관계. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 16(3), 19-58.
장문선, 김영환 (1997). 분노표현방식과 사회적 지지가 심장혈관반응에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 16(2), 197-207.
정선영 (1999). 우울감, 자의식 및 사회적 문제해결력의 관계. 한국외국어대학교 대학원 석사학위논문.
조긍호, 김지연, 최경순 (2009). 문화성향과 분노통제: 분노 수준과 공감의 매개효과를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 23(1), 69-90.
최대정, 조현주, 박동건 (2005). 조직 구성원들의 정서 경험: 요인구조의 동등성 및 타당도 분석. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 18(2), 385-411.
최임정, 심혜숙 (2010). 대학생의 내면화된 수치심과 분노표현양식이 대인관계문제에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 22(2), 479-492.
최정아 (1997). 자의식과 자존감이 상담에 대한 태도에 미치는 영향. 연세대대학교 대학원 석사학위논문.
페이오픈 (2011). 직장인 분노 설문조사
허정훈 (2000). 자의식과 스트레스 대처방식이 긍정적, 부정적 정서에 미치는 영향. 한양대학교 대학원 석사학위논문.
Aquino, K., Douglas, S., & Martinko, M. J. (2004). Overt anger in response to victimization: Attributional style and organizational norms as moderators. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9(2), 152-164.
Averill, J. R. (1982). Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Bass, B, M. (1990). Bass and Stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory and research and managerial applications. New York: Free Press.
Berkowitz, L. (1990). On the formation and regulation of anger and aggression: A cognitive-neoassociationistic analysis. American Psychologist, 45(4), 494-503.
Cacioppo, J. T., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Emotions. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 191-214.
Carter, L., & Minirth, F. B. (1993). The Anger Workbook: A 13-Step Interactive Plan To Help You. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Clark, C. (1990). Emotions and micropolitics in everyday life: Some patterns and paradoxes of place. In T. D. Kemper (Ed.), Research agendas in the sociology of emotions (pp. 305-333). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Conger, J. A., & Kanungo, R. N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.
Darwin, C. (1872). The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. New York: Appleton & Co.
Deffenbacher, J. L., McNamara, K., Stark, R. S., & Sabadell, P. M. (1990). A comparison of cognitive-behavioral and process-oriented group counseling for general anger reduction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69(2), 167-172.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1992). Trait anger: Theory, findings, and implications. In Spielberger, C. D., & Butcher, J. N. (Eds.). Advaces in Personality Assessment. (Vol. 9, pp. 177-201). Hillsdale, NJ; Erlbaum.
Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., Lynch, R. S., & Morris, C. D. (1996). The expression of anger and its consequences. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 575-590.
Fenigstein, A., Scheier, M. F., & Buss, A. H. (1975). Public and private self-consciousness: Assessment and theory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 522-527.
Fenigstein, A. (1979). Self-consciousness, self- attention, and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 75-86.
Fitness, J. (2000). Anger in the workplace: An emotion script approach to anger episodes between workers and their superiors, co-workers and subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(2), 147-162.
Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (1999). A model of work frustration-aggression. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 915-931.
Frijda, N. H. (1993). Moods, emotion episodes, and emotions. In Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M. (ED.), Handbook of emotions., (pp. 381-403). New York, Guilford Press.
Froming, W. J., & Carver, C. S. (1981). Divergent influences of private and public self-consciousness in a compliance paradigm. Journal of Research in Personlality, 15, 159-171.
Gibson, D. E., & Schroeder, S. J. (2002). Grinning, frowning, and emotionless: Agent perceptions of power and their effects on felt and displayed emotions in influence attempts. In: Ashkanasy, N. M., Zerbe, W. J., & Hartel, C. E. J. (Eds). Managing Emotions in the Workplace. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 184-211.
Gibson, D. E., Schweitzer, M. E., Callister, R. R., & Gray, B. (2009). The influence of anger expressions on outcomes in organizations. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 2, 236-262.
Glomb, T., & Hulin, C. (1997). Anger and gender effects in observed supervisor-subordinate dyadic interactions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 72, 281-307.
Glomb, T. (2002). Workplace anger and aggression: Informing conceptual models with data from specific encounters. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 20-36.
Izard, C. E. (1993). Four systems for emotion activation: Cognitive and noncognitive processes. Psychological Review, 100, 68-90.
Keltner, D., & Gross, J. J. (1999). Functional accounts of emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 13, 467-480.
Keltner, D., & Kring, A. M. (1998). Emotion, social function, and psychopathology. Review of General Psychology, 2, 320-342.
Kerby, D. S., Brand, M. W., & John, R. (2003). Anger types and the use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco among Native American adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 37(5), 485-491.
Leary, M. R., & Kowalski, R. M. (1990). Impression management: A literature review and two component model. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 34-47.
Lewis, K. (2000). When leaders display emotion: How followers respond to negative emotional expression of male and female leaders. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 221-234.
Mayer, J. D., DiPaolo, M., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personal of Personality Assessment, 54(3), 772-781.
Neuman, J. H., & Baron, R. A. (1998). Workplace violence and sorkplace aggression: evidence concerning specific forms, potential causes, and preferred targets. Journal of Management, 24(3), 391-419.
OECD (2017). Hours worked. OECD.
Pennebaker, J. W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., & Glaser, R. (1988). Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(2), 239-245.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185-211.
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1977). Self-focused attention and the experience of emotion: Attraction, repulsion, elation, and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 625-636.
Scheier, M. F. (1980). Effects of public and private self-consciousness on the public expression of personal beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 514-521.
Schweiger, D. M., Sandberg, W. R., & Rechner, P. L. (1989). Experiential effects of dialectical inquiry, Devil’s advocacy, and consensus approaches to strategic decision making. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 745-772.
Spielberger, C. D. (1980). Preliminary manual for the state-trait anger scale(STAS). Tampa, Florida: University of South Florida.
Spielberger, C. D., Jacobs, G. A, Rusell, S., & Crane, R. S. (1983). Assessment of anger: The state-trait anger scale. Advances in personality assessment, 2, N, J; LEA, 161-189.
Spielberger, C. D., Johnson, E. H., Russell, S. F., Crane, R. J., Jacobs, G. A., & Worden, T. J. (1985). The experience and expression of anger: Construction and validation of an anger expressin scale. In M. A. Chesney & R. H. Rosenman(Eds.), Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral Disorders (pp.5-30). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Spielberger, C. D., Krasner, S. S., & Solomon, E. P. (1988). The experience, expression, and control of anger. In M. P. Janisse(Ed.), Health psychology: Individual differences and stress (pp. 89-108). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Swinkels, A., & Giuliano, T. A. (1995). The Measurement and conceptualization of mood awareness: Monitoring and labeling one's mood atates. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(9), 934-949.
Tripp, T. M., & Bies, R. J. (1997). What’s good about revenge: The avenger’s perspective. In R. J. Lewicki, R. J. Bies, & B. H. Sheppard (Eds.), Research on negotiation in organizations, 6, Greenwich, CT: JAI. 145-160.
Van Kleef, G. A., De Dreu, C. K. W., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2004). The interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 57-76.
Van Kleef, G. A., & Cote, S. (2007). Expressing anger in conflict: When it helps and when it hurts. Journal of Applied psychology, 92, 1557-1569.