Main Article Content
Rapid advances in technology in Artificial Intelligence(AI) influence work and workplace. In this study, we aimed to investigate how an employee’s perception of AI’s competence impacts their job insecurity and work cynicism. In an experimental study (Study 1) using a sample of 214 Korean employees, we found that an employee’s perception of AI’s competence increased work cynicism via increased job insecurity. In Study 2, using a sample of 242 American workers, we revealed that the employee’s judgment on AI’s competence positively related to work cynicism, and job insecurity partly mediated the relationship. As hypothesized, the moderating role of work meaningfulness was found. The relationship between job insecurity and work cynicism was stronger for those with a high level of work meaningfulness than those with a low level of work meaningfulness. Also, the mediating effect of job insecurity was moderated by work meaningfulness in the relationship between perceived competence of AI and work cynicism. We discussed implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Acemoglu, D., & Restrepo, P. (2017). Robots and jobs: Evidence from US labor markets. NBER working paper 23285.https://doi.org/10.3386/w23285
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Aleksander, I. (2017). Partners of humans: A realistic assessment of the role of robots in the foreseeable future. Journal of Information Technology, 32(1), 1-9.https://doi.org/10.1057/s41265-016-0032-4
Andersson, L. M., & Bateman, T. S. (1997). Cynicism in the workplace: some causes and effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(5), 449-469.https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1379(199709)18:5<449::aid-job808>3.0.co;2-o
Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1989). Content, cause, and consequences of job insecurity: A theory-based measure and substantive test. Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), 803-829. https://doi.org/10.5465/256569
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., De Boer, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Job demands and job resources as predictors of absence duration and frequency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(2), 341-356.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00030-1
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173- 1182.https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216.https://doi.org/10.1177/135910457000100301
Brougham, D., & Haar, J. (2018). Smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics, and algorithms (STARA): employees’ perceptions of our future workplace. Journal of Management & Organization, 24(2), 239-257.https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2016.55
Bunderson, J. S., & Thompson, J. A. (2009). The call of the wild: Zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 54(1), 32-57.https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.2009.54.1.32
Cartwright, S., & Holmes, N. (2006). The meaning of work: The challenge of regaining employee engagement and reducing cynicism. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 199-208.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2006.03.012
Caruso, E. M., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2008). A wrinkle in time: Asymmetric valuation of past and future events. Psychological Science, 19(8), 796-801.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02159.x
Cassar, V., & Briner, R. B. (2011). The relationship between psychological contract breach and organizational commitment: Exchange imbalance as a moderator of the mediating role of violation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(2), 283-289.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.09.007
Chamberlain, R., Mullin, C., Scheerlinck, B., & Wagemans, J. (2018). Putting the art in artificial: Aesthetic responses to computer-generated art. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 12(2), 177-192.https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000136
Credé, M., Harms, P., Niehorster, S., & Gaye-Valentine, A. (2012). An evaluation of the consequences of using short measures of the Big Five personality traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(4), 874-888. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027403
Cuddy, A. J., Glick, P., & Beninger, A. (2011). The dynamics of warmth and competence judgments, and their outcomes in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 31, 73-98.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2011.10.004
De Hoogh, A. H., & Den Hartog, D. N. (2009). Neuroticism and locus of control as moderators of the relationships of charismatic and autocratic leadership with burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 1058-1067.https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016253
De Witte, H. (2005). Job insecurity: Review of the international literature on definitions, prevalence, antecedents and consequences. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(4), 1-6. https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC89073
Debus, M. E., König, C. J., & Kleinmann, M. (2014). The building blocks of job insecurity: The impact of environmental and person related variables on job insecurity perceptions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(2), 329-351.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2011.10.004
Demerouti, E., Mostert, K., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Burnout and work engagement: A thorough investigation of the independency of both constructs. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(3), 209-222.https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019408
Dietvorst, B. J., Simmons, J. P., & Massey, C. (2015). Algorithm aversion: People erroneously avoid algorithms after seeing them err. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 144(1), 114-126. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000033
Dobrow, S. R. (2013). Dynamics of calling: A longitudinal study of musicians. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(4), 431-452.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1808
Fast, E., & Horvitz, E. (2017, February). Long-term trends in the public perception of artificial intelligence. In Thirty-First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. https://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/AAAI/AAAI17/paper/viewPaper/14581
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 77-83.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.005
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878-902.https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000163
Fiske, S. T., Xu, J., Cuddy, A. C., & Glick, P. (1999). (Dis) respecting versus (dis) liking: Status and interdependence predict ambivalent stereotypes of competence and warmth. Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 473-489.https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00128
Gelfand, L. A., Mensinger, J. L., & Tenhave, T. (2009). Mediation analysis: A retrospective snapshot of practice and more recent directions. The Journal of General Psychology, 136(2), 153-178.https://doi.org/10.3200/GENP.136.2.153-178
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann Jr, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(6), 504-528.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1
Grant, A. M. (2008). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 108-124.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.108
Gwak, Y., Jung, Y., & Sohn, Y. (2017). Who suffers the most from abusive supervision? Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 30(3), 443-464.https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v30i3.443-464
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408-420.https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360
Hobfoll, S. E. (2001). The influence of culture, community, and the nested‐self in the stress process: advancing conservation of resources theory. Applied Psychology, 50(3), 337-421. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00062
Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and Persuasion. Yale University Press.
Huang, G.-h., Wellman, N., Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Wang, L. (2017). Deviance and exit: The organizational costs of job insecurity and moral disengagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(1), 26-42.https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000158
Jarrahi, M. H. (2018). Artificial intelligence and the future of work: Human-AI symbiosis in organizational decision making. Business Horizons, 61(4), 577-586.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2018.03.007
Jiang, L., & Probst, T. M. (2017). The rich get richer and the poor get poorer: Country- and state-level income inequality moderates the job insecurity-burnout relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(4), 672-681.https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000179
Johnson, J. L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (2003). The effects of psychological contract breach and organizational cynicism: Not all social exchange violations are created equal. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5), 627-647. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.207
Ju, K., Lee, M, Yang, H, & Ryu, D. (2017). The 4th Industrial Revolution and Artificial Intelligence: An Introductory Review. Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society, 42(4), 1-14.
Keller, A. C., Spurk, D., Baumeler, F., & Hirschi, A. (2016). Competitive climate and workaholism: Negative sides of future orientation and calling. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 122-126.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.061
Kim, A., Cho, M., Ahn, J., & Sung, Y. (2019). Effects of gender and relationship type on the response to Artificial Intelligence. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(4), 249-253.https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2018.0581
Kim, J. Kim, B. & Ha, M (2011). Validation of A Korean version of the Big Five Inventory. Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling. 32(1), 47-65.
Kim, H., & Yoo, T. (2013). The effect of job overload on job burnout. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 317-340.https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v26i2.317-340
Fossen, F. M., & Sorgner, A. (2019). New digital technologies and heterogeneous employment and wage dynamics in the United States: Evidence from individual-level data. Retrieved fromhttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3390231
Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., & Mauno, S. (2003). Job insecurity and self-esteem: Evidence from cross-lagged relations in a 1-year longitudinal sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(3), 617-632.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(02)00223-4
Lee, C., Huang, G. H., & Ashford, S. J. (2018). Job insecurity and the changing workplace: Recent developments and the future trends in job insecurity research. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 335-359.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104651
Logg, J. M., Minson, J. A., & Moore, D. A. (2019). Algorithm appreciation: People prefer algorithmic to human judgment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 151, 90-103.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2018.12.005
Lysova, E. I., Allan, B. A., Dik, B. J., Duffy, R. D., & Steger, M. F. (2019). Fostering meaningful work in organizations: A multi-level review and integration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 110, 374-389.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2018.07.004
MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J. L., & Lockwood, C. M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1(4), 173-181.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026595011371
Mauno, S., & Kinnunen, U. (2002). Perceived job insecurity among dual-earner couples: Do its antecedents vary according to gender, economic sector and the measure used? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75(3), 295-314.https://doi.org/10.1348/096317902320369721
Min, J., Kim, S, Park, Y & Sohn, W (2018). A comparative study of potential job candidates’ perceptions of an AI recruiter and a human recruiter. Journal of the Korean Convergence Society, 9(5), 191-202.
Nam, T. (2019). Technology usage, expected job sustainability, and perceived job insecurity. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 138, 155-165.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2018.08.017
Nass, C., Steuer, J., & Tauber, E. R. (1994). Computers are social actors. Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ‘94, 72-78. Presented at the Conference companion.https://doi.org/10.1145/259963.260288
Ng, A. (2016). Why AI is the new electricity. Nikkei Asian Review Online, 27. Retrieved from http://www.deloitte.co.uk/sharedservicesconference/assets/img/presentations/deloitte-uk-ssc2019-day2-2019-plenary-11-jim-guzscza-deloitte.pdf.
Oelberger, C. R. (2019). The dark side of deeply meaningful work: Work‐relationship turmoil and the moderating role of occupational value homophily. Journal of Management Studies, 56(3), 558-588.https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12411
Oh, H. (2018). The fourth industrial revolution and job crisis in the Korean economy. The Korean Economic Forum. 11(2), 93-115.
Oh, C., Song, J., Choi, J., Kim, S., Lee, S., & Suh, B. (2018, April). I lead, you help but only with enough details: Understanding user experience of co-creation with artificial intelligence. Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’18, 1-13.https://doi.org/10.1145/3173574.3174223
Park, G., Kim, M., & Han, Y. (2014). Exploration of predictive variables of emotional labor in subordinate roles and verification of the relations model between emotional labor and burnout. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 27(1), 267-290.
Park, J., & Sohn, Y. (2018). Effects of subjective social status on meaning of work. Korean Journal of the Science of Emotion & Sensibility, 21(2), 43-60.
Peters, M. A. (2017). Deep Learning, the final stage of automation and the end of work (Again)? Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management, 5(2), 154-168.https://doi.org/10.22381/PIHRM5220176
Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/00273170701341316
Prewett, M. S., Johnson, R. C., Saboe, K. N., Elliott, L. R., & Coovert, M. D. (2010). Managing workload in human-robot interaction: A review of empirical studies. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 840-856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.010
Probst, T. M., & Lawler, J. (2006). Cultural values as moderators of employee reactions to job insecurity: The role of individualism and collectivism. Applied Psychology, 55(2), 234-254. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00239.x
Rousseau, D. M. (2001). Schema, promise and mutuality: The building blocks of the psychological contract. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(4), 511-541. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317901167505
Schaufeli, W B., Leiter, M. P, Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). In C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), MBI Manual (3rd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Schwartz, S. H., & Bardi, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures: Taking a similarities perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(3), 268-290.https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032003002
Shank, D. B., Graves, C., Gott, A., Gamez, P., & Rodriguez, S. (2019). Feeling our way to machine minds: People’s emotions when perceiving mind in artificial intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 98, 256-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.04.001
Shin, K (2003). The Maslach Bunout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS): An application in South Korea. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 16(3), 1-17
Shin, S, Ha, M, & Lee, J. (2017). High school students’ perception of Artificial Intelligence: Focusing on conceptual understanding, emotion and risk perception. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 17(21), 289-312.
Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: new procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422-445.https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422
Steger, M. F., Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Measuring meaningful work: The work and meaning inventory (WAMI). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 322-337.https://doi.org/10.1177/1069072711436160
Totterdell, P., Wall, T., Holman, D., Diamond, H., & Epitropaki, O. (2004). Affect networks: a structural analysis of the relationship between work ties and job-related affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 854-867. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.854
Van Esch, P., Black, J. S., & Ferolie, J. (2019). Marketing AI recruitment: The next phase in job application and selection. Computers in Human Behavior, 90, 215-222.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.09.009
Vander Elst, T., Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2014). On the reciprocal relationship between job insecurity and employee well-being: Mediation by perceived control? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(4), 671-693. https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12068
Won, W. (2019, February 20th). Too good at writing AI: Surprised developers decide not to publish [너무 글 잘쓰는 AI… 깜짝 놀란 개발자들, 비공개 결정]. Chosun Ilbo. https://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2019/02/20/2019022000136.html
Yoo, T., Lee, H., Ko, Y., Choe, H., Kim, M., Myung, M., … Lee, E. (2019). The content analysis of the Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology from 1988 to 2018 and future suggestions. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 32(3), 297-362.https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i3.297-362
Złotowski, J., Yogeeswaran, K., & Bartneck, C. (2017). Can we control it? Autonomous robots threaten human identity, uniqueness, safety, and resources. International Journal of Human- Computer Studies, 100, 48-54.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2016.12.008