Main Article Content
As the world is at the beginning of a Fourth Industrial Revolution, using and applying artificial intelligence (AI) has become a significant task for organizations and individuals. In this study, based on the technology acceptance model and literature on trust at organizations, we investigated factors that influence employees’ intention to use AI. We hypothesized that perceived usefulness of AI and trust would increase employees’ intention to use AI, and examined the role of perceived organizational support on the effects of perceived usefulness on trust. Using an experimental study, we found that Korean employees with high levels of perceived usefulness of AI reported higher levels of cognitive trust and affective trust than their counterparts. Cognitive trust and affective trust fully mediated the effects of perceived usefulness of AI on intention to use it, and the effects remained significant even after accounting for the effects of age, gender, and prior experience of using AI. We also found that perceived organizational support moderated the effect of perceived usefulness of AI on affective trust such that its effect was positive only for those with low perceived organizational support. For those with high perceived organizational support, affective trust toward AI did not vary depending on perceived usefulness of AI. Based on these findings, we discussed implications, limitations, and recommendations for future research.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
National Research Foundation of Korea
Grant numbers NRF-2017S1A6A3A01078538
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Bickmore, T. W., Vardoulakis, L. M. P., & Schulman, D. (2013). Tinker: a relational agent museum guide. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 27(2), 254-276.https://doi.org/10.1007/s10458-012-9216-7
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley
Broadbent, E., Stafford, R., & MacDonald, B. (2009). Acceptance of healthcare robots for the older population: Review and future directions. International Journal of Social Robotics, 1(4), 319-330.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-009-0030-6
Brougham, D., & Haar, J. (2018). Smart technology, artificial intelligence, robotics, and algorithms (STARA): employees’ perceptions of our future workplace. Journal of Management & Organization, 24(2), 239-257.https://doi.org/10.1017/jmo.2016.55
Cave, S., & Dihal, K. (2019). Hopes and fears for intelligent machines in fiction and reality. Nature Machine Intelligence, 1(2), 74-78. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-019-0020-9
Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C. O., & Ng, K. Y. (2001). Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 425-445. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.425
Colquitt, J. A., & Zapata-Phelan, C. P. (2007). Trends in theory building and theory testing: A five-decade study of the Academy of Management Journal. Academy of Management Journal, 50(6), 1281-1303.https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.28165855
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340. https://doi.org/10.2307/249008
Dong, B., Evans, K. R., & Zou, S. (2008). The effects of customer participation in co-created service recovery. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 123-137.https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-007-0059-8
Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P. D., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 42-51.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.42
Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment, and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(1), 51-59.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.1.51
EMBRAIN (2020). 2020 Macromill EMBRAIN. https://embrain.com/upload/data/embrain.pdf
Fast, E., & Horvitz, E. (2017, February). Long-term trends in the public perception of artificial intelligence. In Thirty-First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved fromhttps://www.aaai.org/ocs/index.php/AAAI/AAAI17/paper/viewPaper/14581
Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief; attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.
Funder, D. C., & Ozer, D. J. (2019). Evaluating effect size in psychological research: Sense and nonsense. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 2(2), 156-168.https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245920979282
Gaudiello, I., Zibetti, E., Lefort, S., Chetouani, M., & Ivaldi, S. (2016). Trust as indicator of robot functional and social acceptance. An experimental study on user conformation to iCub answers. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 633-655.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.057
Gelfand, L. A., Mensinger, J. L., & Tenhave, T. (2009). Mediation analysis: A retrospective snapshot of practice and more recent directions. The Journal of General Psychology, 136(2), 153-178.https://doi.org/10.3200/GENP.136.2.153-178
Gignac, G. E., & Szodorai, E. T. (2016). Effect size guidelines for individual differences researchers. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 74-78.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.0690191-8869
Gillath, O., Ai, T., Branicky, M. S., Keshmiri, S., Davison, R. B., & Spaulding, R. (2021). Attachment and trust in artificial intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 115, 106607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2020.106607
Glikson, E., & Woolley, A. W. (2020). Human trust in artificial intelligence: Review of empirical research. Academy of Management Annals, 14(2), 627-660.https://doi.org/10.5465/annals.2018.0057
Gombolay, M. C., Gutierrez, R. A., Clarke, S. G., Sturla, G. F., & Shah, J. A. (2015). Decision-making authority, team efficiency and human worker satisfaction in mixed human-robot teams. Autonomous Robots, 39(3), 293-312.https://doi.org/10.15607/rss.2014.x.046
Ha. Y (2012). Calling and work-related outcomes: career commitment as a mediator and person-supervisor fit and perceived organizational support as moderators. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(2), 159-170. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076546
Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408-420.https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360
Hengstler, M., Enkel, E., & Duelli, S. (2016). Applied artificial intelligence and trust—The case of autonomous vehicles and medical assistance devices. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 105, 105-120.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2015.12.014
Hobfoll, S. E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J. P., & Westman, M. (2018). Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 103-128.https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032117-104640
James, L. R., & Brett, J. M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(2), 307-321.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.69.2.307
Johnson, D., & Grayson, K. (2005). Cognitive and affective trust in service relationships. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 500-507.https://doi.org/10.1016/s0148-2963(03)00140-1
Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001). The job satisfaction–job performance relationship: A qualitative and quantitative review. Psychological Bulletin, 127(3), 376-407.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.3.376
Kang, H. (2019, November 13th). Artificial intelligence and big data are everywhere but nowhere, they are used to improve convenience. [어디에나 있지만 어디에도 없는 ‘인공지능․빅데이터’, 편의성 향상 위해 쓰인다]. Donga Ilbo.http://www.donga.com/news/article/all/20191113/98348448/1
Kaplan, A., & Haenlein, M. (2019). Siri, Siri, in my hand: Who’s the fairest in the land? On the interpretations, illustrations, and implications of artificial intelligence. Business Horizons, 62(1), 15-25.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2018.08.004
Kim, J. Kim, B. & Ha, M (2011). Validation of A Korean version of the Big Five Inventory. Journal of Human Understanding and Counseling. 32(1), 47-65.
Kuvaas, B., Buch, R., & Dysvik, A. (2017). Constructive supervisor feedback is not sufficient: Immediacy and frequency is essential. Human Resource Management, 56(3), 519-531. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.21785
Kwon, S., Lim, Y., & Kim, H. (2020). A study on the usage intention of AI(artificial intelligence). Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information, 25(1), 199-206.
Lee, G., & Han, J. (2019). A study on the intention to switch from online travel agency(OTA) to hotel direct booking according to consumers' perceived risks and perceived benefits. Korean Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 28(6), 107-126.
Lee, H., Lee, S., & Jung, K. (2019). The impact of Artificial Intelligence adoption in candidates screening and job interview on intentions to apply. The Journal of Information Systems, 29(3), 25-52.https://doi.org/10.5859/KAIS.2019.28.2.25
Lee, J. D., & See, K. A. (2004). Trust in automation: Designing for appropriate reliance. Human factors, 46(1), 50-80.https://doi.org/10.1518/hfes.46.1.50_30392
Li, J. J., Bonn, M. A., & Ye, B. H. (2019). Hotel employee's artificial intelligence and robotics awareness and its impact on turnover intention: The moderating roles of perceived organizational support and competitive psychological climate. Tourism Management, 73, 172-181.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.02.006
Liang, Y., & Lee, S. A. (2017). Fear of autonomous robots and artificial intelligence: Evidence from national representative data with probability sampling. International Journal of Social Robotics, 9(3), 379-384.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12369-017-0401-3
Madsen, M., & Gregor, S. (2000, December). Measuring human-computer trust. In 11th Australasian conference on information systems (Vol. 53, pp. 6-8).
Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1995.9508080335
McAllister, D. J. (1995). Affect-and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24-59.https://doi.org/10.5465/256727
McKnight, D. H., Choudhury, V., & Kacmar, C. (2002). The impact of initial consumer trust on intentions to transact with a web site: a trust building model. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 11(3-4), 297-323.https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8687(02)00020-3
Mehrabian, A. (1966). Immediacy: An indicator of attitudes in linguistic communication. Journal of Personality, 34(1), 26-34.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1966.tb01696.x
Nass, C., Steuer, J., & Tauber, E. R. (1994, April). Computers are social actors. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 72-78).
Park, J．(2020, January, 31th). AInomics in daily life ① AI is in charge of selection and screening. [일상생활 속의 AI노믹스 ① 면접관이 취업․인사 담당하는 시대] Maeil Economy, 2020.1.31.https://www.mk.co.kr/news/culture/view/2020/01/100172/
Park, J, Choi, C, Kim, H., & Lee, J. (2013). Cognitive and affective trust in IT consulting service. Journal of Information Technology Services, 12(3), 39-54.
Park, S. & Choi, S. (2018). An understanding the factors influencing satisfaction and continued use intention of AI speakers: Focusing on the utilitarian and hedonic values. Information and Society, 19(3), 159-182.
Park, J. & Jung, Y. (2020). The effects of perceived Artificial Intelligence’s competence on employee’s job insecurity and work cynicism: Moderated mediation by work meaningfulness, Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 33(2), 145-175.
Pinto Dos Santos D., Giese D., Brodehl S., Chon S.H., Staab W., Kleinert R. (2019). Medical students’ attitude towards artificial intelligence: a multicentre survey. European Radiology. 29, 1640-1646.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5601-1
Prentice, C., Dominique Lopes, S., & Wang, X. (2020). Emotional intelligence or artificial intelligence- an employee perspective. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 29(4), 377-403.https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.164712
Rhoades, L. & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), 698-714.http://doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.87.4.698
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological inquiry, 11(4), 319-338.https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Schoorman, F. D., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: Past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344-354.https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2007.24348410
Shank, D. B., Graves, C., Gott, A., Gamez, P., & Rodriguez, S. (2019). Feeling our way to machine minds: People's emotions when perceiving mind in artificial intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 98, 256-266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2019.04.001
Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal field studies. Management Science, 46(2), 186-204. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.18.104.22.16826
Webber, S. S. (2008). Development of cognitive and affective trust in teams: A longitudinal study. Small Group Research, 39(6), 746-769. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046496408323569
Won, W. (2019, February 20th). Too good at writing AI: Surprised developers decide not to publish [너무 글 잘쓰는 AI… 깜짝 놀란 개발자들, 비공개 결정]. Chosun Ilbo. https://news.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2019/02/20/2019022000136.html
Yoo, T., Lee, H., Ko, Y., Choe, H., Kim, M., Myung, M., … Lee, E. (2019). The content analysis of the Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology from 1988 to 2018 and future suggestions. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 32(3), 297-362.https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i3.297-362
Yoon, M. & Kyung, J. (2006). The impact of web site characteristics on e-trust in specialized portal. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 6(7), 1-12.
Zhang, B., & Dafoe, A. (2019). Artificial intelligence: American attitudes and trends. Available at SSRN 3312874.