The effects of after-hours work activities and job-related social activities on recovery and job engagement

Main Article Content

Seohyun Ji
Sunhee Lee


Although academic and social interests in the effects of long working hours and after-hours job-related activities on recovery from work have increased, few empirical studies have investigated the effects of after-hours job-related social activities on recovery and job effectiveness. We hypothesized and examined a mediation model that job-related social activities and after-hours work activities could influence next day ego depletion and job engagement through psychological detachment. Data from 377 employees who responded twice a day (morning and evening) for two weeks were collected using a daily diary survey. Multi-level analyses showed that as employees spent more time at both job-related social activities and after-hours work activities, their psychological detachment decreased, resulting in a higher ego depletion and a lower job engagement on the following day. Interestingly, after-hours job-related social activities had a larger effect on ego depletion than after-hours work activities. Finally, the direct effects of after-hours work activities and job-related social activities on ego depletion were also significant. These findings suggest that after-hours work-related activities can affect ego depletion through alternative or multiple paths, as opposed to solely a psychological detachment. The findings of this study could help us contribute to understand the harmful effects of after-hours work activities and job-related social activities on the recovery process. They also have important implications in terms of interventions for recovery.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Ji, S., & Lee, S. (2020). The effects of after-hours work activities and job-related social activities on recovery and job engagement. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 33(4), 353–371.
Empirical Articles


Barnes, C. M., Lucianetti, L., Bhave, D. P., & Christian, M. S. (2015). “You wouldn’t like me when I’m sleepy”: Leaders’ sleep, daily abusive supervision, and work unit engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 58(5), 1419-1437.

Bauer, D. J., Preacher, K. J., & Gil, K. M. (2006). Conceptualizing and testing random indirect effects and moderated mediation in multilevel models: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 11(2), 142-163.

Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1252- 1265.

Baumeister, R. F., Tice, D. M., & Vohs, K. D. (2018). The strength model of self-regulation: Conclusions from the second decade of willpower research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 141-145.

Bian, Y., & Ikeda, K. (2016). East Asian social networks. In R. Alhajj & J. Rokne (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining (pp. 417-433). New York: Springer.

Caruso, C. C. (2014). Negative impacts of shiftwork and long work hours. Rehabilitation Nursing, 39(1), 16-25.

Christian, M. S., & Ellis, A. P. J. (2011). Examining the effects of sleep deprivation on workplace deviance: A self-regulatory perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 54(5), 913-934.

Christian, M. S., Garza, A. S., & Slaughter, J. E. (2011). Work engagement: A quantitative review and test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 89-136.

Ciarocco, N., Twenge, J. M., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The state self-control capacity scale: Reliability, validity, and correlations with physical and psychological Stress. Unpublished Manuscript.

Craig, A., & Cooper, R. E. (1992). Symptoms of acute and chronic fatigue. In Handbook of Human Performance (Academic P, Vol. 3, pp. 289-339). London, United Kindom.

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Geurts, S. A. E., & Taris, T. W. (2009). Daily recovery from work-related effort during non-work time. In S. Sonnentag, P. L. Perrewé, & D. C. Ganster (Eds.), Current Perspectives on Job-Stress Recovery: Research in Occupational Stress and Well Being (Vol. 7, pp. 85-123). Bingley, UK: JAI Press.

Fisher, C. D., & To, M. L. (2012). Using experience sampling methodology in organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational, 33(7), 865-877.

Friese, M., Messner, C., & Schaffner, Y. (2012). Mindfulness meditation counteracts self-control depletion. Consciousness and Cognition, 21(2), 1016-1022.

Garrick, A. M., Mak, A. S., Cathcart, S., Winwood, P. C., Bakker, A. B., & Lushington, K. (2018). Non-work time activities predicting teachers’ work-related fatigue and engagement: An effort-recovery approach. Australian Psychologist, 53(3), 243- 252.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110.

Hobfoll, S E. (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3), 513-524.

Hobfoll, Stevan E. (2002). Social and psychological resources and adaptation. Review of General Psychology, 6(4), 307-324.

Houdmont, J., Zhou, J., & Hassard, J. (2011). Overtime and psychological well-being among chinese office workers. Occupational Medicine, 61(4), 270-273.

Johnson, R. E., Rosen, C. C., & Djurdjevic, E. (2011). Assessing the impact of common method variance on higher order multidimensional constructs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(4), 744-761.

Kim, D., & Heo, C. (2019). The effect of smartphone use during off-job time on emotional exhaustion and job engagement: Mediating effect of work-related rumination and moderating effect of segmentation preference. Korea Academy of Management, 32(2), 215-240.

Kim, Y., Lee, H., & Park, H. (2018). Relationships between role overload and work engagement among employees. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 31(1), 249-279.

Lanaj, K., Johnson, R. E., & Barnes, C. M. (2014). Beginning the workday yet already depleted? Consequences of late-night smartphone use and sleep. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124(1), 11-23.

Lee, S., Ji, O., & Lee, P. (2018). Effects of alcohol drinking of employee on job engagement and interpersonal conflict at work: A test of self-control strength theory using diary study. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 31(1), 303-325.

Lian, H., Brown, D. J., Ferris, D. L., Liang, L. H., Keeping, L. M., & Morrison, R. (2014). Abusive supervision and retaliation: A self-control framework. Academy of Management Journal, 57(1), 116-139.

Lian, H., Yam, K. C., Ferris, D. L., & Brown, D. (2017). Self-control at work. Academy of Management Annals, 11(2), 703-732.

Lin, S. H., Ma, J., & Johnson, R. E. (2016). When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101(6), 815-830.

Meijman, T. F., & Mulder, G. (1998). Psychological aspects of workload. In P. J. D. Drenth & H. Thierry (Eds.), Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology. Volume (Vol. 2, pp. 5-33). Hove, England: Psychology.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthen, B. (2017). Mplus User’s Guide: Statistical Analysis With Latent Variables (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Nägel, I. J., Sonnentag, S., & Kühnel, J. (2015). Motives matter: A diary study on the relationship between job stressors and exercise after work. International Journal of Stress Management, 22(4), 346.

Oerlemans, W. G. M., Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2014). How feeling happy during off-job activities helps successful recovery from work: A day reconstruction study. Work & Stress, 28(2), 198-216.

Oh, A., & Park, K. (2014). An empirical study on the antecedents and results of job engagement: The mediating role of job engagement in the JD-R(Job demand-resource) model. Korean Academy of Management, 0-40.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi- sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293-315.

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701-716.

Sonnentag, S., & Bayer, U. V. (2005). Switching off mentally: Predictors and consequences of psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10(4), 393-414.

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The recovery experience questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 204-221.

Sonnentag, S., Venz, L., & Casper, A. (2017). Advances in recovery research: What have we learned? what should be done next? Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 365-380.

Taris, T. W., Ybema, J. F., Beckers, D. G. J., Verheijden, M. W., Geurts, S. A. E., & Kompier, M. A. J. (2011). Investigating the associations among overtime work, health behaviors, and health: A longitudinal study among full-time employees. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 18(4), 352-360.

Ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). Staying engaged during the week: The effect of off-job activities on next day work engagement. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17(4), 445-455.

Trougakos, J. P., Beal, D. J., Cheng, B. H., Hideg, I., & Zweig, D. (2015). Too drained to help: A resource depletion perspective on daily interpersonal citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(1), 227-236.

Tyler, J. M., & Burns, K. C. (2008). After depletion: The replenishment of the self’s regulatory resources. Self and Identity, 7(3), 305-321.

Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., & Ciarocco, N. J. (2005). Self-regulation and self-presentation: Regulatory resource depletion impairs impression management and effortful self- presentation depletes regulatory resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(4), 632-657.

Volman, F. E., Bakker, A. B., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2013). Recovery at home and performance at work: A diary study on self-family facilitation. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(2), 218-234.

Wendsche, J., & Lohmann-Haislah, A. (2017). A meta-analysis on antecedents and outcomes of detachment from work. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 2072-2096.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235-244.

Yam, K. C., Chen, X. P., & Reynolds, S. J. (2014). Ego depletion and its paradoxical effects on ethical decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 124(2), 204-214.