Differences in drivers’ pedestrian avoidance response based on Warning timing, stimulus-response compatibility and Drivers’ distraction of auditory pedestrian collision warning system

Main Article Content

Hyunmin Kang
Kwanghee Han
Jaesik Lee


In this study, the effects of auditory pedestrian collision warning system’s stimulus-response compatibility (compatible vs. incompatible) and warning timing(TTC: 2sec. vs. 4sec.) and type of driver distraction (control condition vs. auditory distraction vs. visual distraction) on pedestrian avoidance response were examined. The dependent measures were time to initial steering wheel maneuvering, steering wheel rotation angle, clearance distance to the pedestrian, ratio of pedestrian-collision and ratio of lane departure. The experiment used driving simulator and the results was as follows. First, the effects of stimulus-response compatibility appeared to differ as warning timing and types of driver distraction were varied. To be specific, stimulus-response incompatible condition was more suitable for auditory pedestrian collision warning system than stimulus-response compatible condition. Second, compare to 4sec, 2sec TTC condition yielded larger steering wheel rotation angle and higher ratios both in pedestrian-collision and lane departure. Third, among the types of driver distraction, the visual distraction impaired drivers’ ability to avoid the pedestrian most seriously. In conclusion, stimulus-response incompatible warnings which provided 4sec TTC condition seemed to be more reliable and useful in providing pedestrian-collision warning to drivers.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Kang, H., Han, K., & Lee, J. (2016). Differences in drivers’ pedestrian avoidance response based on Warning timing, stimulus-response compatibility and Drivers’ distraction of auditory pedestrian collision warning system. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 29(2), 257–277. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v29i2.257-277
Empirical Articles

Funding data


고려대학교 부설 행동과학연구소 (1999). 심리척도 핸드북 Ⅰ. 서울: 학지사.

고려대학교 부설 행동과학연구소 (1998). 심리척도 핸드북 Ⅱ. 서울: 학지사.

공군사관학교 (2011). 2011 조종적성검사 백서.

김종회, 오주석, 이순철 (2006). 운전행동결정요인이 위반행동 및 사고에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 19(3), 349- 369.

이희승 (2011). 민중국어대사전. 서울: 민중서림.

박수애 (2006). 항공심리학. 서울: 학지사.

박영호 (2000). 교통사고 운전자의 인적요인 분석: 버스 운전자를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 13(2), 75-90.

서재현, 설현도, 송상호, 이호선 (2007). 조직행동론. 서울: 한경사.

이순철, 오주석 (2007). 운전행동결정요인이 위험운전, 주의행동 및 피로대처에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 20(4), 395-414.

이순철, 오주석, 송훈화, 윤대섭, 황윤숙 (2010). 운전자 성격과 태도가 주관적 운전부하 수준에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23(3), 445-469.

이원영 (2006). 안전행동 및 사고에 대한 성실성, 인지실패 및 직무스트레스의 상호작용. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 19(3), 475-497.

이훈구 (1985). 산업 및 조직심리학. 서울: 법문사.

정재우 (2000). 안전 수행 예측에서 성격 특성의 역할: 철도사고사례. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 13(1), 41-49.

포커스컨설팅 (2011). 공군조종사 인성검사(Korea Airforce Pilot Personality Inventory) 개발보고서.

항공안전관리단 (2006). HFACS를 이용한 최근 10년간 항공기 중사고 분석. 미발표 보고서

항공안전관리단 (2012). H/F 관리를 위한 조종사 특성요소 추출 및 DB 구축(안) 보고. 미발표 보고서

Adams, E. (1976). Accident causation at the Management systems. Professional Safety, Oct, (Asse).

Alkov, R. A., Borowsky, M. S., & Gaynor, J. A. (1982). Stress coping and the U. S. Navy aircrew factors mishap. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 53, 1112-1115.

Bird, F. E. & Loftus, R. G. (1976). Loss Control Management. Loganville: Institute Press.

Cooper, D. (1998). Improving Safety Culture - A Practicla Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO Personality Inventory Revised (N 대 - PI-R) and N대 Five-Factor Inventory(NEO - FFI) Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resource: Odessa, FL.

Deitz S. R., & Thoms, W. E. (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance. New York: Quorum Books.

Greenwood M. & Woods H. M. (1964). A report on the incidence of industrial accidents upon individual with special reference to multiple accidents(1919). In: Accident Research, W Haddon, E A Suchman & D Klein (Eds), New York: Harper & Row.

Hawkins, H. H. (1987). Human Factors in Flight. Vermont: Ashgate.

Heinrich, H., Peterson, D. & Roos, N. (1980). Industrial Accident Prevention. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hentschel, U., Bijleveld, C., Kiessling, M., & Hosemann, A. (1993). Stress related psycho physiological reaction of truck drivers in anxiety, defence, and situational factors. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 25(2). 115-121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-4575(93)90050-7

Koz, J. P. (1984). An analysis of accidents proneness in the flight pilot. Unpublished doctoral dissertation The American University. Washington. D. C.

Lardent, C. L. (1991). Pilots who crash: Personality constructs underlying accidents prone behavior of fighter pilot. Multi-variate Experimental Clinical Research, 10(1), 1-25.

Matthew, G., Dorn, L., & Glendon, A. I. (1991). Personality correlates of driver stress, Personality and Individual Difference, 12, 539-549. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(91)90248-A

Melamed, S., Luz, J., Najenson, T., Jucha, E., & Green, M. (1989). Ergonomic stress levels, personal characteristics, accidents occurrence and sickness absence among factory workers. Ergonomics, 32, 1101-1110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00140138908966877

Murphy, L., DuBois, D., & Murrell, J. (1986). Accident reduction through stress management. Journal of Business and Psychology, 1(1). 5-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01014163

Pestonjee, D., Singh, A. & Singh, U. (1980). Personality factors in road accidents. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 69-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2130/jjesp.20.69

Sah, A. P. (1989). Personality characteristics of accident free and accident involved Indian railway drivers. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 5(2). 203-206.

Sanders, M. G., & Hoffman, M. A. (1975). Personality aspects of involvement in pilot - error accidents. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 46, 186-190.

Shappell, S. A. (2000). The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - HFACS. DOT/FAA/AM-00/7

Stradling, S., Meadow, M. & Beatty, S. (2004). Characteristics and crash-involvement of speeding, violating and thrill - seeking drivers. In Rothengatter, T. & Huguenin, R. D.(Eds), Traffic and Transport Psychology Proceeding of the ICTIP 2000(177-192), Oxford: Elsevier.

Steffy, B. D., Jones, J. W., Murphy, L. R. & Kunz, L. (1986). A demonstration of the impact of stress abatement programs on reducing employees’ accidents and their costs. American Journal of health promotion, 1(2), 25-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-1.2.25

Stranks, H.(2007). Human Factors and Behavioural Safety. Oxford: ELSEVIER. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780080489001

US Department of Defense. Human Factors Analysis and Classification System - A Mishap investigation and data analysis tool.

Weaver, D. (1971). Symptoms of Operational Error. Professional Safety, Oct, (Asse).