Differences in drivers’ pedestrian avoidance response based on Warning timing, stimulus-response compatibility and Drivers’ distraction of auditory pedestrian collision warning system

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Hyunmin Kang
Kwanghee Han
Jaesik Lee


In this study, the effects of auditory pedestrian collision warning system’s stimulus-response compatibility (compatible vs. incompatible) and warning timing(TTC: 2sec. vs. 4sec.) and type of driver distraction (control condition vs. auditory distraction vs. visual distraction) on pedestrian avoidance response were examined. The dependent measures were time to initial steering wheel maneuvering, steering wheel rotation angle, clearance distance to the pedestrian, ratio of pedestrian-collision and ratio of lane departure. The experiment used driving simulator and the results was as follows. First, the effects of stimulus-response compatibility appeared to differ as warning timing and types of driver distraction were varied. To be specific, stimulus-response incompatible condition was more suitable for auditory pedestrian collision warning system than stimulus-response compatible condition. Second, compare to 4sec, 2sec TTC condition yielded larger steering wheel rotation angle and higher ratios both in pedestrian-collision and lane departure. Third, among the types of driver distraction, the visual distraction impaired drivers’ ability to avoid the pedestrian most seriously. In conclusion, stimulus-response incompatible warnings which provided 4sec TTC condition seemed to be more reliable and useful in providing pedestrian-collision warning to drivers.


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