Main Article Content
This study investigates the influence of newcomers’ personality on their psychological contract. Especially, we focused on the proactive personality of the newcomers who have worked less than one-year in the current organization. We hypothesized that the extent to which newcomers have proactive personality would have a positive effect on the perception of promise in the relationship with the organization. Also, we expected that this relationship would be mediated by the leader-member exchange. 433 newcomers participated in the survey, and structural equation modeling (SEM) has been adopted to test the hypotheses. As the result, individuals’ proactive personality had a positive influence on the perception of promises, and this relationship was partially mediated by the leader-member exchange level. These results imply that individuals’ psychological contract could be affected by personality factors as well as organizational factors. Also, it shows that the relationship newcomers make with their supervisor has an important role in perceiving psychological contract with the organization.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
김동욱, 한영석, 김명소 (2014) 주도적 성격이 직무수행에 미치는 영향: 직무의미성, 지원적 리더십, 자율성 문화의 조절효과 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(2), 471-495.
김혜영, 장지현 (2015). 주도적 성격이 개발지원관계망 특성을 매개로 조직사회화에 미치는 영향. 직업교육연구, 34(1), 1225- 4762.
김혜정, 이진규 (2007). 전문가의 이중몰입 생성과정에서 심리적 계약의 역할. 인사조직연구, 15(4), 1-42.
맹보학 (2010). 심리적 계약위반이 사회복지사의 조직몰입에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구. 한국정책연구, 10(1), 197-215.
박지은, 오원경, 김민수 (2012). 조직시민행동에 대한 심리적 계약 위반의 효과: 기질적 정서의 조절효과를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 25(3), 589-606.
배병렬 (2013). 구조방정식 모델링. 도서출판 청람.
유지운, 탁진국 (2012). 신입사원의 주도적 성격이 정보추구행동을 통해 조직사회화에 미치는 영향: 팀개방성과 리더행동의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 25(4), 749-773.
은영신, 유태용, 서학삼 (2012). 주도적 성격과 창의적 행동 간의 관계: 학습목표지향성의 매개효과와 자기효능감, 조직풍토, 상사지원의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 25(3), 607-632.
Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411-423.
Antonacopoulou, E. (2000). Employee development through self-development in three retail banks. Personnel Review, 29, 491-508.
Ashford, S. J., & Black, J. S. (1996). Proactivity during organizational entry: The role of desire for control. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 199-214.
Bateman, T. S., & Crant, J. M. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 103-118.
Bauer, T. N., & Green, S. G. (1996). Development of leader-member exchange: A longitudinal test. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1538-1567.
Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.
Bentler, P. M. (1995). EQS structural equation program manual. Encino CA: Multivariate Software.
Bernerth, J. B., Armenakis, A. A., Field, H. S., Giles, W. F., & Walker, H. J. (2007). Is personality associated with perceptions of LMX? An empirical study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 28, 613-631.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: Wiley.
Brass, D. J. (2001). Social capital and organizational leadership. In S. J. Zaccaro & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), The nature of organizational leadership: Understanding the performance imperatives confronting today’s leaders, 132-152. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
Chan, D. (2006). Interactive effects of situational judgment effectiveness and proactive personality on work perceptions and work outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 475-481.
Chen, Z. X., Tsui, A. S., & Zhong, L. (2007). Reactions to psychological contract breach: a dual perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 527-548.
Claes, R., Beheydt, C., & Lemmens, B. (2005). Unidimensionality of abbreviated proactive personality scales across cultures. Applied Psychology: An international review, 54, 476-489.
Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M., & Kessler, I. (2002). Exploring reciprocity through the lens of the psychological contract: Employee and employer perspectives. Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 11, 69-86.
Colye-Shapiro, J. A., & Neuman, J. (2004). Individual dispositions and the psychological contract: The moderating effects of exchange and creditor ideologies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 150-164.
Conway, N. & Briner, R. (2005). A daily diary study of affective responses to psychological contract breach and exceeded promises. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23,287-302.
Crant, M. J. (1995). The proactive personality scale and objective job performance among real estate agents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 532-537.
Crant, M. J. (2000). Proactive behavior in organizations. Journal of Management, 26, 435-462.
Crant, M. J., & Bateman, T. S. (2000). Charismatic leadership viewed from above: The impact of proactive personality. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 63-75.
Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. (2005). Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review. Journal of Management, 31, 874-900.
De Vos, A., Buyens, D., & Schalk, R. (2003). Psychological contract development during organizational socialization: Adaptation to reality and the role of reciprocity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 537-559.
Dulac, T., Coyle-Shapiro, J. A., Henderson, D. J., & Wayne, S. J. (2008). Not All Responses to Breach are the Same: The Interconnection of Social Exchange and Psychological Contract Processes in Organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 1079-1098.
Flood, P. C., Turner, T., Ramamoorthy, N., & Pearson, J. (2001). Causes and consequences of psychological contracts among knowledge workers in the high technology and financial services industries. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12, 1152-1165.
Fuller, B., & Marler, L. E. (2009). Change driven by nature: A meta-analytic review of the proactive personality literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 329-345.
Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 827-844.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161-177.
Graen, G. B., & Scandura, T. A. (1987). Toward a psychology of dyadic organizing. Research in Organizational Behavior, 9, 175-208.
Grant, D. (1999). HRM, rhetoric and the psychological contract: A case of “easier said than done”. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10, 327-350.
Greene, A-M, Ackers, P., & Black, J. (2001). Lost narratives? From paternalism to team-working in a lock manufacturing firm. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 22, 211-237.
Guest, D. (1998). Is the psychological contract worth taking seriously? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 649-664.
Guest, D. & Conway, N. (2000). The public sector and the psychological contract. IPD Research Report. London: IPD.
Hall, R. J., Snell, A. F., & Foust, M. S. (1999). Item parceling strategies in SEM: Investigating the subtle effects of unmodeled secondary constructs. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 233-256.
Henderson, D., Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M., Bommer, W. H., & Tetrick, L. E. (2008). Leader-member exchange, differentiation, and psychological contract fulfillment: A multilevel examination. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1208-1219.
Holmbeck, G. N. (1997). Toward terminological, conceptual, and statistical clarity in the study of mediators and moderators: Examples from the child-clinical and pediatric psychology literatures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 599-610.
Hui, C., Lee, C., & Rousseau, D. M. (2004). Psychological contract and organizational citizenship behavior in China: Investigating generalizability and instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 311-321.
Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Leader-member exchange and citizenship behavior: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 269-277.
James, L. R., Mulaik, S. A., & Brett, J. M. (1982). Causal Analysis: Assumptions, Models, and Data, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Wanberg, C. R. (2003). Un-wrapping the organizational entry process: Disentangling multiple antecedents and their pathways to adjustment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 779-794.
Li, N., Liang, J., & Crant, M. J. (2010). The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: A relational perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 395-404.
Liden, R. C., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451-465.
Liden, R. C., & Maslyn, J. M. (1998). Multi-dimensionality of leader-member exchange: An empirical assessment through scale development. Journal of Management, 24, 43-72.
Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resource management, 15, 47-119.
Major, D. A., Turner, J. E., & Fletcher, T. D. (2006). Linking proactive personality and the Big Five to motivation to learn and development activity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 927-935.
Meckler, M., Drake, B. H., & Levinson, H. (2003). Putting Psychology Back into Psychological Contracts. Journal of Management Inquiry, 12, 217-228.
Morrison, E. W. & Robinson, S. L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22, 226-256.
Ng, T. W. H., Eby, L., Sorensen, K. L., & Feldman, D. C. (2005). Predictors of Objective and Subjective Career Success: A Meta-Analysis. Personnel Psychology 58, 367-408.
Orvis, K. A., Dudley, N. M., & Cortina, J. M. (2008). Conscientiousness and reactions to psychological contract breach: A longitudinal field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1183-1193.
Parker, S. K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy: The roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 835-852.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717-731.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Contemporary approaches to assessing mediation in communication research. In A. F. Hayes, M. D. Slater, & L. B. Snyder (Eds.), The Sage sourcebook of advanced data analysis methods for communication research, 13-54. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Raja, U., Johns, G., & Ntalianis, F. (2004). The impact of personality on psychological contracts. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 350-367.
Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 574-599.
Robinson, S. L., & Morrison, E. W. (1995). Psychological contracts and OCB: The effect of unfulfilled obligations on civic virtue behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 289-298.
Rousseau, D. M. (1989). Psychological and implied contracts in organizations. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 2, 121-139.
Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreement. Sage Publications.
Rousseau, D. M. (2001). The idiosyncratic deal: Flexibility versus fairness? Organizational Dynamics, 29, 260-273.
Rousseau, D. M. (2011). The individual- organizational relationship: The psychological contract, in Zedeck, S. (Eds.), APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 191-220. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Rousseau, D. M., & Greller, M. (1994). Human resource practices: Administrative contract makers. Human Resource Management, 33, 385-401.
Rousseau, D. M., & Wade-Benzoni, K. A. (1994). Changing individual and organizational attachments: A two-way street. In A. Howard(ed.), The Changing Nature of Work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 290-322.
Saks, A. M. & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and present as a prologue for the future. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 234-279.
Salancik, G. R., & Pfeffer, J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitude and task design. Administrative and Science Quarterly, 23, 224-253.
Schein, E. H. (1980). Organizational psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenticce-Hall.
Seers, A., & Graen, G. B. (1984). The dual attachment concept: A longitudinal investigation of the combination of task characteristics and leader-member exchange. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33, 283-306.
Seibert, S. E., Crant, J. M., & Kraimer, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 416-427.
Seibert, S. E., Kraimer, M. L., & Crant, J. M. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54, 845-874.
Steiger, J. H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 25, 173-180.
Tallman, R. J., & Bruning, N. S. (2008). Relating employees' psychological contracts to their personality. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 688-712.
Taylor, S. M., & Tekleab, A. G. (2003). Aren’t there two parties in an employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organization-employee agreement on contract obligations and violations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 585-608.
Thomas, J. P., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta-analysis of emergent proactive constructs. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 275-300.
Thompson, J. A. (2005). Proactive personality and job performance: A social capital perspective on mediating behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1011-1017.
Tomprou, M., & Nikolaou, I. (2011). A model of psychological contract creation upon organizational entry. Career Development International, 16, 342-363.
Turnley, W. H., & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 25-42.
Uhl-Bien, M., & Maslyn, J. M. (2003). Reciprocity in manager-subordinate relationship: Components, configurations, and outcomes. Journal of Management, 29, 511-532.
Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (1998). Organizational citizenship behavior of contingent workers in Singapore. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 692-703.
Vandenberg, R. J., & Lance, C. E. (2000). A review and synthesis of the measurement invariance literature: Suggestions, practices, and recommendations for organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 4-69.
Wayne, S. J., Coyle-Shapiro, J. A., Eisenberger, R., Liden, R. C., Rousseau, D. M., & Shore, L. M. (2009). Social influences. In H. J. Klein, T. E. Becker, & J. P. Meyer (Eds.), Commitment in organizations: Accumulated wisdom and new directions, 253-284. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in Organizations. Sage Publications, Inc.