A Latent Profile Analysis of Work Engagement, Workaholism and Psychological Detachment Differences in Well-being after work among Korean employees

Main Article Content

SunA Kang
BoYoung Choi


This study identified the latent profile of two types of heavy work investment, namely workaholism and work engagement, by adding psychological detachment from work. Additionally, it was examined whether there were differences in well-being after work by each profile type. For this purpose, Latent Profile Analysis(LPA) was conducted using data of 548 korean employees in various occupations, and three types(workaholic, heavy work investors, disenaged) were confirmed as a result. There was a significant difference in all the well-being variables by type. The heavy work investors type showed the best well-being among the three types with the lowest emotional exhaustion, the highest positive affect, the middle level negative affect and the sleep quality. Our findings indicate that psychological detachment is an important factor that alleviates the detrimental effects of heavy work investment on employees’well-being and that work engagement can play a protecting role for employees’well-being even in absence of significant levels of psychological detachment.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Kang, S., & Choi, B. (2022). A Latent Profile Analysis of Work Engagement, Workaholism and Psychological Detachment: Differences in Well-being after work among Korean employees. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 35(2), 275–297. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v35i2.275-297
Empirical Articles


강선아, 박춘신, 장재윤 (2018). 직장인들의 퇴근 후 회복경험 유형에 대한 탐색적 연구: 잠재 프로파일 분석. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 31(3), 643-667.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.31.3.201808.643 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.31.3.201808.643

권동균, 김명소, 한영석 (2015). 상사에 대한 정서노동이 직무탈진과 직무열의에 미치는 영향: 조직지원인식의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 28(3), 457-480.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.28.3.201508.457 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.28.3.201508.457

남기은 (2020). 일중독과 직무열의가 조직 및 개인에 미치는 영향에 대한 변인중심적 접근과 사람중심적 접근. 충남대학교 박사논문.

박춘신, 장재윤 (2017). 정서노동 유형과 웰빙 및 객관적 수행: 표면 및 내면행위의 잠재 프로파일 분석. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 30(3), 393-413.

박형인, 박영아, 김제인, 허태균 (2011). 한국판 직무스트레스 회복경험 척도(Recovery Experience Questionnaire)의 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 24(3), 523- 552.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.3.201108.523 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.3.201108.523

신강현 (2003). 일반직 종사자를 위한 직무 소진 척도 (MBI-GS) 에 대한 타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 16(3), 1- 17.

이선희, 남기은 (2019). 일중독과 직무열의가 수면에 미치는 영향: 경험표집방법을 통한 심리적 분리의 매개효과 검증. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 32(4), 419-437.https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i4.419-437 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v32i4.419-437

이현희, 김은정, 이민규 (2003). 한국판 정적 정서 및 부적 정서 척도(PANAS)의- 45 -타당화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 22(4), 36-335.

염소란, 김명소 (2017). 상사에 대한 정서노동의 잠재프로파일분석: 정서노동 유형에 따른 선행변인 및 직무효과성 차이. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 30(3), 465-489.

최현주, 장은비 (2021). 학교조직풍토와 교사 소진의 관계: 특수교사가 지각한 학교조직풍토의 잠재프로파일을 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 학교, 18(3), 291-316.

Ardichvili, A., & Kuchinke, K. P. (2009). International perspectives on the meanings of work and working: current research and theory. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), 155-167.https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422309333494 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422309333494

Bakker, A., Albrecht, S., & Leiter, M. (2011). Key questions regarding work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 4-28.https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2010.485352 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2010.485352

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands-resources theory: taking stock and looking forward. Journal of occupational health psychology, 22(3), 273.https://doi.apa.org/doi/10.1037/ocp0000056 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000056

Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., Oerlemans, W., & Sonnentag, S. (2013). Workaholism and daily recovery: A day reconstruction study of leisure activities. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(1), 87-107. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1796 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1796

Bennett, A. A., Bakker, A. B., & Field, J. G. (2018). Recovery from work-related effort: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 39(3), 262-275.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2217 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2217

Binnewies, C., Sonnentag, S., & Mojza, E. J. (2010). Recovery during the weekend and fluctuations in weekly job performance: A week-level study examining intra-individual relationships. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(2), 419-441.https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909x418049 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317909X418049

Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F. Ⅲ., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupper, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193-213.https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4

Clark, M. A., Michel, J. S., Zhdanova, L., Pui, S. Y., & Baltes, B. B. (2016). All work and no play? A meta-analytic examination of the correlates and outcomes of workaholism. Journal of Management, 42(7), 1836-1873.http://jom.sagepub.com/content/early/2014/02/28/0149206314522301 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314522301

Cropley, M., & Zijlstra, F. R. H. (2011). Work and rumination. In J. Langan-Fox, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Handbook of stress in the occupations (pp. 487-503). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.https://doi.org/10.4337/9780857931153.00061 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4337/9780857931153.00061

Del Líbano, M., Llorens, S., Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2012). About the dark and bright sides of self-efficacy: Workaholism and work engagement. The Spanish journal of psychology, 15(2), 688-701.https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_sjop.2012.v15.n2.38883 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJOP.2012.v15.n2.38883

Di Stefano, G., & Gaudiino, M. (2019). Workaholism and work engagement: How are they similar? How are they different? A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(3), 329-347.https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2019.1590337 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2019.1590337

Feuerhahn, N., Sonnentag, S., & Woll, A. (2014). Exercise after work, psychological mediators, and affect: A day-level study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 62-79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.709965 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.709965

Garrad, L., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2016). The dark side of high employee engagement. Harvard business review, 94(9), 2-4.

Gaudiino, M., & Di Stefano, G. (2021). To detach or not to detach? The role of psychological detachment on the relationship between heavy work investment and well-being: A latent profile analysis. Current Psychology.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01958-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01958-3

Gilbert, E., Foulk, T., & Bono, J. (2017). Building personal resources through interventions: An integrative review. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 39(2), 214-228.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2198 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2198

Gillet, N., Morin, A. J., Cougot, B., & Gagné, M. (2017). Workaholism profiles: Associations with determinants, correlates, and outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 90(4), 559-586.https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12185 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12185

Gillet, N., Morin, A. J., Sandrin, E., & Houle, S. A. (2018). Investigating the combined effects of workaholism and work engagement: A substantive-methodological synergy of variable- centered and person-centered methodologies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 109, 54-77.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2018.09.006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2018.09.006

Guidetti, G., Viotti, S., & Converso, D. (2020). The interplay between work engagement, workaholism, emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction in academics: A person-centred approach to the study of occupational well-being and its relations with job hindrances and job challenges in an Italian university. Higher Education Quarterly, 74(3), 224-239. https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12239 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/hequ.12239

Heimer, R. Z., Myrseth, K. O. R., & Schoenle, R. S. (2019). YOLO: Mortality beliefs and household finance puzzles. The Journal of Finance, 74(6), 2957-2996.https://doi.org/10.1111/jofi.12828 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jofi.12828

Hill, K. G., White, H. R., Chung, I. J., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2000). Early adult outcomes of adolescent binge drinking: person-and variable-centered analyses of binge drinking trajectories. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(6), 892-901.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb02071.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2000.tb02071.x

Innanen, H., Tolvanen, A., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2014). Burnout, work engagement and workaholism among highly educated employees: Profiles, antecedents and outcomes. Burnout Research, 1(1), 38-49.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.04.001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn.2014.04.001

Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Sianoja, M., de Bloom, J., Korpela, K., & Geurts, S. (2017). Identifying long-term patterns of work-related rumination: Associations with job demands and well-being outcomes. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(4), 514-526.https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1314265 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2017.1314265

Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Siltaloppi, M., & Sonnentag, S. (2011). Job demands–resources model in the context of recovery: Testing recovery experiences as mediators. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(6), 805-832.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2010.524411 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2010.524411

Kühnel, J., Sonnentag, S., & Westman, M. (2009). Does work engagement increase after a short respite? The role of job involvement as a double‐edged sword. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(3), 575-594.https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X349362 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X349362

Lawrence, B. S., & Zyphur, M. J. (2011). Identifying organizational faultlines with latent class cluster analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 14(1), 32-57.https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110376838 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110376838

Mazetti, G., Schaufeli, W. B., & Guglielmi, D. (2018). Are workaholism and work engagement in the eye of the beholder? A multirater perspective on different forms of working hard. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 34(1), 30-40.https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000318 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000318

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, L. J., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2013). A person-centered approach to the study of commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 23(2), 190-202.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.07.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2012.07.007

Pravettoni, G., Cropley, M., Leotta, S. N., & Bagnara, S. (2007). The differential role of mental rumination among industrial and knowledge workers. Ergonomics, 50, 1931-1940. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130701676088 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00140130701676088

Schaufeli, W. B. (2016). Heavy work investment, personality and organizational climate. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 31(6), 1057-1073.https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2015-0259 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-07-2015-0259

Schaufeli, W. B., & Salanova, M. (2011). Work engagement: On how to better catch a slippery concept. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 39-46.https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2010.51598 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2010.515981

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness studies, 3(1), 71-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326

Schaufeli, W. B., Shimazu, A., & Taris, T. W. (2009). Being driven to work excessively hard: The evaluation of a two-factor measure of workaholism in the Netherlands and Japan. Cross-Cultural Research, 43(4), 320-348.https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397109337239 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397109337239

Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Bakker, A. B. (2008). It takes two to tango: Workaholism is working excessively and working compulsively. The long work hours culture: Causes, consequences and choices, 203-226.

Shimazu, A., De Jonge, J., Kubota, K., & Kawakami, N. (2014). Psychological detachment from work during off-job time: Predictive role of work and non-work factors in Japanese employees. Industrial Health, 2013-0210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2013-0210

Shimazu, A., Matsudaira, K., De Jonge, J., Tosaka, N., Watanabe, K., & Takahashi, M. (2016). Psychological detachment from work during nonwork time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?. Industrial health, 2015-0097.https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2015-0097 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2015-0097

Shimazu, A., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Is workaholism good or bad for employee well-being? The distinctiveness of workaholism and work engagement among Japanese employees. Industrial health, 47(5), 495-502. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.47.495

Shimazu, A., Schaufeli, W. B., Kamiyama, K., & Kawakami, N. (2015). Workaholism vs. work engagement: The two different predictors of future well-being and performance. International journal of behavioral medicine, 22(1), 18-23.http://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-014-9410-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12529-014-9410-x

Shimazu, A., Schaufeli, W. B., Kubota, K., & Kawakami, N. (2012). Do workaholism and work engagement predict employee well-being and performance in opposite directions? Industrial health, 50(4), 316-321.https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.MS1355 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.MS1355

Siltaloppi, M., Kinnunen, U., & Feldt, T. (2009). Recovery experiences as moderators between psychological work characteristics and occupational well-being. Work Stress 23, 330-348.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903415572 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903415572

Snir, R., & Harpaz, I. (2012). Beyond workaholism: Towards a general model of heavy work investment. Human resource management review, 22(3), 232-243.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2011.11.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2011.11.011

Sonnentag, S. (2018). Job-stress recovery: Core findings, future research topics, and remaining challenges. Work Science Center Thinking Forward Report Series. Atlanta GA: Georgia Institute of Technology.

Sonnentag, S., Binnewies, C., & Mojza, E. J. (2010). Staying well and engaged when demands are high: The role of psychological detachment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(5), 965.https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/a0020032 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020032

Sonnentag, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). The recovery experience questionnaire: Development and validation of a measure for assessing recuperation and unwinding from work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12(3), 204-221.https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.204 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.12.3.204

Sonnentag, S.,& Fritz, C. (2015). Recovery from job stress: The stressor detachment model as an integrative framework. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36(1), 72-103.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1924 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1924

Sonnentag, S., Mojza, E. J., Binnewies, C., & Scholl, A. (2008). Being engaged at work and detached at home: A week-level study on work engagement, psychological detachment, and affect. Work & Stress, 22(3), 257-276.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802379440 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802379440

Spurk, D., Hirschi, A., Wang, M., Valero, D., & Kauffeld, S. (2020). Latent profile analysis: A review and “how to” guide of its application within vocational behavior research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 120, 103445.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103445 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2020.103445

Sussman, S. (2012). Workaholism: A review. Journal of addiction research & therapy, (1).https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6105.S6-001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6105.S6-001

Taris, T. W., Schaufeli, W. B., & Shimazu, A. (2010). The push and pull of work: About the difference between workaholism and work engagement. Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 39-53). New York: Psychology Press.

Tein, J. Y., Coxe, S., & Cham, H. (2013). Statistical power to detect the correct number of classes in latent profile analysis. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 20(4), 640-657.https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2013.824781 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2013.824781

Tóth-Király, I., Morin, A. J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2021). A longitudinal perspective on the associations between work engagement and workaholism. Work & Stress, 35(1), 27-56.

https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2020.1801888 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2020.1801888

van Wijhe, C., Peeters, M., Schaufeli, W., & van den Hout, M. (2011). Understanding workaholism and work engagement: The role of mood and stop rules. Career Development International, 16(3), 254-270.https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431111140156 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/13620431111140156

van Beek, I., Taris, T. W., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Workaholic and work engaged employees: Dead ringers or worlds apart?. Journal of occupational health psychology, 16(4), 468-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024392

Wang, M., & Hanges, P. J. (2011). Latent class procedures: Applications to organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 14(1), 24-31.https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110383988 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428110383988

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063

Weigelt, O., Gierer, P., & Syrek, C. J. (2019). My mind is working overtime-towards an integrative perspective of psychological detachment, work-related rumination, and work reflection. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(16), 2987. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162987 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162987

Wendsche, J., & Lohmann-Haislah, A. (2017). A meta-analysis on antecedents and outcomes of detachment from work. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 2072.https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02072 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02072

Woo, S. E., Jebb, A. T., Tay, L., & Parrigon, S. (2018). Putting the “person” in the center: Review and synthesis of person-centered approaches and methods in organizational science. Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 814-845.https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428117752467 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428117752467