A Preliminary Validation Study for the Korean version of the Burnout Assessment Tool (K-BAT)

Main Article Content

Soohyun Cho


Some issues on constructs of MBI-GS in the burnout study has been risen. Schaufeli’s team(2019) invented the new measure of Burnout Assessment Tool(BAT) as the second version of burnout inventory, which covers the problematic issues. The present study aimed to validate the BAT among the South Korean sample. The one among 23 items of BAT were excluded based on an exploratory factor analysis using 367 South Korean employees. A four-factor structure of K-BAT (i.e., exhaustion, mental distance, impaired cognitive control, impaired emotional control) was supported by a confirmatory factor analysis using a different 345 employees. Validity tests for a convergence and a discriminativeness were tested by applying the MTMM(Multi-Traits Multi-Methods) model, along with a correlation analysis with MBI. For external discriminative validity, engagement was used. A sequential test for a criterion validity both with demands of workload and role ambiguity and with outcomes of turnover intention and depression was conducted. A convergence, an external discriminative, and a criterion validity were supported respectively, whereas an internal discriminative validity with MBI not supported. Implications and the directions for a consequential study were discussed, with considering the present study as an initial study for validating K-BAT.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Cho, S. (2020). A Preliminary Validation Study for the Korean version of the Burnout Assessment Tool (K-BAT). Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 33(4), 461–499. https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v33i4.461-499
Empirical Articles
Author Biography

Soohyun Cho, Keimyung University

Department of Education

Funding data


Ahola, K., Honkonen, T., Isometsä, E., Kalimo, R., Nykyri, E., Aromaa, A., & Lönnqvist, J. (2005). The relationship between job-related burnout and depressive disorders-results from the Finnish health 2000 study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 88(1), 55-62.https://doi.org:/10.1016/j.jad.2005.06.004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.06.004

Aktas, M., Gelfand, M. J., & Hanges, P. J. (2016). Cultural tightness-looseness and perceptions of effective leadership. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47(2), 294-309.https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022115606802 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022115606802

Alarcon, G. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of burnout with job demands, resources, and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 549-562. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.03.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.03.007

Armon, G., Shirom, A., Shapira, I., & Melamed, S. (2008). On the nature of burnout-insomnia relationships: a prospective study of employed adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 5-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.01.012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.01.012

Baddeley, A. D., & Logie, R. H. (1999). Working memory: The multiple-component model. In A. Miyake & P. Shah (Eds.), Models of working memory (pp. 28-61). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9781139174909.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174909.005

Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29(2), 147-154.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.515 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.515

Boersma, K., & Lindblom, K. (2009). Stability and change in burnout profiles over time: A prospective study in the working population. Work & Stress, 23(3), 264-283.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903265860 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370903265860

Bresό, E., Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). In search of the “third dimension” of burnout: Efficacy or inefficacy? Applied Psychology, 56(3), 460-478.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00290.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2007.00290.x

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230-258.https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0049124192021002005

Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological bulletin, 56(2), 81-105.https://doi.org/10.1037/h0046016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/h0046016

Cheng, J. C., & Yi, O. (2018). Hotel employee job crafting, burnout, and satisfaction: The moderating role of perceived organizational support. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72, 78-85.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.01.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.01.005

Cho, S., Lee, M., Lee, J., & Lee, S. M. (2018). Study on academic burnout and engagement among highschool students: Applying the job demands-resources model. The Korea Educational Review, 24(3), 1-26.https://doi.org/10.29318/KER.24.3.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.29318/KER.24.3.1

Cho, S., Noh, H., Yang, E., Lee, J., Lee, N., Schaufeli, W. B., & Lee, S. M. (2020). Examining the job demands-resources model in a sample of Korean correctional officers. Current Psychology, 1-14.https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-00620-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-00620-8

Chon, K. K., Choi, S. C., & Yang, B. C. (2001). Integrated adaptation of CES-D in Korea. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 6(1), 59-76.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological bulletin, 112(1), 155-159.https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

De Beer, L. T., Schaufeli, W. B., De Witte, H., Hakanen, J. J., Shimazu, A., Glaser, J., ... & Rudnev, M. (2020). Measurement Invariance of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT) Across Seven Cross-National Representative Samples. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(15), 5604.doi:10.3390/ijerph17155604 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155604

de Beer, L. T., & Bianchi, R. (2019). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A Bayesian structural equation modeling approach. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35(2), 217-224.https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000392 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000392

Deligkaris, P., Panagopoulou, E., Montgomery, A. J., & Masoura, E. (2014). Job burnout and cognitive functioning: A systematic review. Work & stress, 28(2), 107-123.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2014.909545

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands- resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied psychology, 86(3), 499-512.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Vardakou, I., & Kantas, A. (2003). The convergent validity of two burnout instruments: A multitrait- multimethod analysis. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 19(1), 12-23.https://doi.org/10.1027//1015-5759.19.1.12 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1027//1015-5759.19.1.12

Diestel, S., Cosmar, M., & Schmidt, K. H. (2013). Burnout and impaired cognitive functioning: The role of executive control in the performance of cognitive tasks. Work & Stress, 27(2), 164-180.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2013.790243 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2013.790243

Dunford, B. B., Shipp, A. J., Boss, R. W., Angermeier, I., & Boss, A. D. (2012). Is burnout static or dynamic? A career transition perspective of employee burnout trajectories. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(3), 637-650. DOI: 10.1037/a0027060. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027060

Farrell, A. M. (2010). Insufficient discriminant validity: A comment on Bove, Pervan, Beatty, and Shiu (2009). Journal of business research, 63(3), 324-327.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.05.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.05.003

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104

Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burn‐out. Journal of social issues, 30(1), 159-165.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1974.tb00706.x

Fried, Y., Shirom, A., Gilboa, S., & Cooper, C. L. (2008). The mediating effects of job satisfaction and propensity to leave on role stress-job performance relationships: Combining meta-analysis and structural equation modeling. International Journal of Stress Management, 15(4), 305-328.DOI:10.1037/a0013932 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013932

García-Arroyo, J., & Osca Segovia, A. (2018). Effect sizes and cut-off points: a meta-analytical review of burnout in latin American countries. Psychology, health & medicine, 23(9), 1079-1093.https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1469780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1469780

Grossi, G., Perski, A., Osika, W., & Savic, I. (2015). Stress‐related exhaustion disorder- clinical manifestation of burnout? A review of assessment methods, sleep impairments, cognitive disturbances, and neuro‐biological and physiological changes in clinical burnout. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(6), 626- 636. http://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12251 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12251

Han, J. (2012). Comparison between Regular Workers and Contingent Workers of Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction in Hotel Industry. Journal of Digital Convergence, 10(11), 503-513.

Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The Job Demands-Resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work & Stress, 22(3), 224-241. https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802379432 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802379432

Halbesleben, J. R. (2006). Sources of social support and burnout: a meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model. Journal of applied Psychology, 91(5), 1134-1145.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1134

Heo, C., Lee, C., Shin, K. H., & Lee, J. H. (2010). The Effect of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Emotional Exhaustion: Mediating Effect of Coping Strategies. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 15(3), 445-462.https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2010.15.3.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2010.15.3.005

Hong, S. (2000). The Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Fit indices in Structural Equation Modeling and Their Rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 161-177.

Hong, S., Malik, M. L., & Lee, M. K. (2003). Testing configural, metric, scalar, and latent mean invariance across genders in sociotropy and autonomy using non-western sample. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(4), 636-654.https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164403251332 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164403251332

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60. ISSN 1477-7029

Hu, N. C., Chen, J. D., & Cheng, T. J. (2016). The associations between long working hours, physical inactivity, and burnout. Journal of occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(5), 514-518.https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0000000000000715 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000000715

Hwang, S., Lee, H., & Park, H. (2018). The Effects of Surface Acting toward Supervisor on Employee Burnout: Neuroticism as a Moderator. The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 31(2), 387-408.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.31.2.201805.387 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v31i2.387-408

Jonsdottir, I. H., Nordlund, A., Ellbin, S., Ljung, T., Glise, K., Währborg, P., ... & Wallin, A. (2017). Working memory and attention are still impaired after three years in patients with stress‐related exhaustion. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 58(6), 504-509.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12394 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12394

Kang, K. W. & Jang, J. Y. (2016). The Structural Relationship among Work Overload, Psychological Detachment, Work-Family Conflict and Life Satisfaction on Married workers. Korean Journal of Counseling, 17(3), 419-440.https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.17.3.201606.419 DOI: https://doi.org/10.15703/kjc.17.3.201606.419

Kim, I., & Heo, C. (2007). Effect of Psychological Acceptance on Burnout: Direct effect on burnout & moderating effect with Big 5, Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 12(3), 547-572.https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2007.12.3.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17315/kjhp.2007.12.3.005

Kim, M., Kim, Y., & Lee, S. (2014). The Relationships between Emotional Labor and Job-related Variables: Meta-analysis, The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 27(4), 683-720.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.27.4.201411.683 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v27i4.683-717

Kim, Y., & Park, H. (2014). A Meta-analytic study of the relationship between role stressor and burnout, Contemporary Social Science Studies, 18, 61-71.

Kleijweg, J. H., Verbraak, M. J., & Van Dijk, M. K. (2013). The clinical utility of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in a clinical population. Psychological Assessment, 25(2), 435-441.DOI:10.1037/a0031334 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031334

Kwon, K., & Kim, T. (2020). An integrative literature review of employee engagement and innovative behavior: Revisiting the JD-R model. Human Resource Management Review, 30(2), 100704.Doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2019.100704 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2019.100704

Lee, M., Lee, K. J., Lee, S. M., & Cho, S. (2020). From emotional exhaustion to cynicism in academic burnout among Korean high school students: Focusing on the mediation effects of hatred of academic work. Stress and Health. 36(3), 376-383. doi.org/10.1002/smi.2936 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2936

Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1993). A further examination of managerial burnout: Toward an integrated model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 3-20.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140103 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140103

Lee, R. T., & Ashforth, B. E. (1996). A meta-analytic examination of the correlates of the three dimensions of job burnout. Journal of applied Psychology, 81(2), 123-133.https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.123 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.2.123

Lee, R. T., Seo, B., Hladkyj, S., Lovell, B. L., & Schwartzmann, L. (2013). Correlates of physician burnout across regions and specialties: a meta-analysis. Human Resources for Health, 11(1), 48-63.https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-11-48 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-11-48

Lee, S. K. (2013). A Study on the Relationship between Work Family Conflict and Turnover Intention: The Case of Flexible Working. Master’s Dissertation. University of Seoul: Seoul.

Lee, S. M., Baker, C. R., Cho, S. H., Heckathorn, D. E., Holland, M. W., Newgent, R. A., Ogle, N. T., Powell, M. L., Quinn, S. L., Wallace, S. L., & Yu, K. (2007). Development and initial psychometrics of the Counselor Burnout Inventory. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 40(3), 142-154.https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2007.11909811 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2007.11909811

Lee, S. M., Cho, S. H., Kissinger, D., & Ogle, N. T. (2010). A typology of burnout in professional counselors. Journal of counseling & development, 88(2), 131-138.https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00001.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2010.tb00001.x

Lesener, T., Gusy, B., & Wolter, C. (2019). The job demands-resources model: A meta-analytic review of longitudinal studies. Work & Stress, 33(1), 76-103.doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2018.1529065 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678373.2018.1529065

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (2010). Cultures and selves: A cycle of mutual constitution. Perspectives on psychological science, 5(4), 420-430. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610375557. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610375557

Maslach, C., Jackson, S. E., Leiter, M. P., Schaufeli, W. B., and Schwab, R. L. (2017). Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual, 4th Edn. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.

Mehrotra, J., & Gebeke, D. (1992). Emerging Factors in Work/Family Interference. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations (54th, Orlando, FL, November 5-10, 1992).

Mitchell, J. O. (1981). The effect of intentions, tenure, personal, and organizational variables on managerial turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 24(4), 742-751.https://doi.org/10.2307/256173 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/256173

Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive psychology, 41(1), 49-100. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734

Moore, J. E. (2000). One Road to Turnover: An Examination of Work Exhaustion in Technology Professionals. MIS Quarterly, 24(1), 141-168. https://doi.org/10.2307/3250982 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3250982

Nimnuan, C., Hotopf, M., & Wessely, S. (2001). Medically unexplained symptoms: an epidemiological study in seven specialities. Journal of psychosomatic research, 51(1), 361-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3999(01)00223-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999(01)00223-9

Paik, S. J. (2016). Structural relationship among job crafting, work engagement and change-oriented behavior. Doctoral Dissertation, Chung-Ang University: Seoul.

Park, C., & Jung, S. (2017). The influence of adaptability for uncertainty on turnover intention and the serial multiple mediating effect of role ambiguity and job satisfaction, The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 30(2), 177-194.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.30.2.201705.177 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v30i2.177-194

Park, H., Nam, S., & Yang, E. (2011). Relationships of Burnout with Job Attitudes and Turnover Intention among Koreans: A Meta-Analysis, The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(3), 457-491. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.24.3.201108.457 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/kjiop.v24i3.457-491

Park, J. M. (2009). The effect of role ambiguity and role conflict on job insecurity and organizational commitment among office workers in the financial institutions. Master’s Dissertation, Korea University: Seoul.

Rizzo, J. R., House, R. J., & Lirtzman, S. I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative science quarterly, 15(2), 150-163.https://doi.org/10.2307/2391486 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2391486

Sakakibara, K., Shimazu, A., Toyama, H., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2020). Validation of the Japanese Version of the Burnout Assessment Tool. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1819. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01819 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01819

Salanova, M., Del Líbano, M., Llorens, S., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2014). Engaged, workaholic, burned‐out or just 9‐to‐5? Toward a typology of employee well‐being. Stress and Health, 30(1), 71-81. DOI: 10.1002/smi.2499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2499

Salvagioni, D. A. J., Melanda, F. N., Mesas, A. E., Gonzάlez, A. D., Gabani, F. L., & de Andrade, S. M. (2017). Physical, psychological and occupational consequences of job burnout: A systematic review of prospective studies. PLoS ONE, 12(10), Article e0185781. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185781 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185781

Sandstrőm, A., Rhodin, I. N., Lundberg, M., Olsson, T., & Nyberg, L. (2005). Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome. Biological psychology, 69(3), 271-279.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.08.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2004.08.003

Schaufeli, W. B. (2018). Professional Burnout: Recent developments in theory and research. Boca Raton: CRC Press.https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203741825 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203741825

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 25(3), 293-315.https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/job.248

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., Hoogduin, K., Schaap, C., & Kladler, A. (2001). On the clinical validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Burnout Measure. Psychology & health, 16(5), 565-582.doi:10.1080/08870440108405527 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440108405527

Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Educational and psychological measurement, 66(4), 701-716.https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471

Schaufeli, W. B., De Witte, H. & Desart, S. (2019). Manual Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT). KU Leuven, Belgium: Unpublished internal report.

Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1996). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Test Manual (3rd ed.) Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA.

Schaufeli, W. B., Maassen, G. H., Bakker, A. B., & Sixma, H. J. (2011). Stability and change in burnout: A 10‐year follow‐up study among primary care physicians. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), 248-267.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2010.02013.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.2010.02013.x

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzάlez-Romά, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness studies, 3(1), 71-92.https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1015630930326 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015630930326

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of burnout: Common ground and worlds apart. Work & Stress, 19(3), 256-262.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500385913 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500385913

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. In Bridging occupational, organizational and public health: A transdisciplinary approach. (pp. 43-68). Dordrecht: Springer.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5640-3_4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-5640-3_4

Schaufeli, W. B., & Van Dierendonck, D. (1995). A cautionary note about the cross-national and clinical validity of cut-off points for the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Psychological reports, 76(3_suppl), 1083-1090.https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1995.76.3c.1083 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1995.76.3c.1083

Schwarzer, R., Schmitz, G. S., & Tang, C. (2000). Teacher burnout in Hong Kong and Germany: A cross-cultural validation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 13(3), 309-326.http://doi.org/10.1080/10615800008549268 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10615800008415730

Shanafelt, T. D., Hasan, O., Dyrbye, L. N., Sinsky, C., Satele, D., Sloan, J., & West, C. P. (2015, December). Changes in burnout and satisfaction with work-life balance in physicians and the general US working population between 2011 and 2014. In Mayo clinic proceedings (Vol. 90, No. 12, pp. 1600-1613). Elsevier. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.08.023 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.08.023

Shin, K., Hahn, Y., Kim, W., & Kim, W. (2008). Emotional Labor and Job Burnout and Job Engagement: The Moderating Effect of Emotional Intelligence, The Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 21(3), 475-491.https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.21.3.200808.475 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.21.3.200808.475

Shin, K. H. (2003). The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey(MBI-GS): An Application In South Korea. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 16(3), 1-17.

Shin, S. (2018). The Effects of Burnout on Absence and Disciplinary Action among Police Officers in Korea, The Journal of Korea Contents Society, 18(5), 149-155.doi.org/10.5392/JKCA.2018.18.05.149

Shirom, A. (2011). Job-related burnout: A review of major research foci and challenges. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology (2nd ed., pp. 223-242). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv1chs29w.17

Swider, B. W., & Zimmerman, R. D. (2010). Born to burnout: A meta-analytic path model of personality, job burnout, and work outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(3), 487-506.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.01.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.01.003

Taris, T. W. (2006). Is there a relationship between burnout and objective performance? A critical review of 16 studies. Work & Stress, 20(4), 316-334.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370601065893 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370601065893

Taris, T., Le Blanc, P., Schaufeli, W., & Schreurs, P. (2005). Are there causal relationships between the dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory? A review and two longitudinal tests. Work & Stress, 19(3), 238-255.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500270453 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500270453

Toppinen‐Tanner, S., Ahola, K., Koskinen, A., & Väänänen, A. (2009). Burnout predicts hospitalization for mental and cardiovascular disorders: 10‐year prospective results from industrial sector. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 25(4), 287-296. doi: 10. 1002/smi.1282 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.1282

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout and engagement: The role of basic psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22(3), 277-294.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802393672 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370802393672

van der Linden, Keijsers, G. P., Eling, P., & Schaijk, R. V. (2005). Work stress and attentional difficulties: An initial study on burnout and cognitive failures. Work & Stress, 19(1), 23-36.https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500065275 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02678370500065275

Vaswani, N., & Narayanamurthy, P. (2017). PCA in Data-Dependent Noise (Correlated-PCA): Nearly Optimal Finite Sample Guarantees. arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.03070. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISIT.2018.8437331

Weber, A., & Jaekel-Reinhard, A. (2000). Burnout syndrome: a disease of modern societies? Occupational medicine, 50(7), 512-517.https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/50.7.512 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/50.7.512

West, S. G., Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: Problems and remedies. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp.56-75). Newburry Park, CA: Sage.

Worley, J. A., Vassar, M., Wheeler, D. L., & Barnes, L. L. (2008). Factor structure of scores from the Maslach Burnout Inventory: A review and meta-analysis of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68(5), 797-823.https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164408315268 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164408315268

Ybema, J. F., Smulders, P. G., & Bongers, P. M. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of employee absenteeism: A longitudinal perspective on the role of job satisfaction and burnout. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 19(1), 102-124.https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320902793691 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320902793691