The relationship of team learning behavior to team performance Meta-analysis

Main Article Content

HeeJin Park


The purpose of this study was to meta-analyze the research examining the effects of team learning behavior on team performance. In addition, team size, team type and study setting were investigated as potential moderators of the relationship between team learning behavior and team performance. In total, the database consisted of 21 effect sizes of 17 studies. They were analyzed by using Hunter & Schmidt (2004) meta-analytic procedure. The results indicated that team learning behavior was positively related to team performance and team innovation. The findings suggested that team size, team type, and study setting moderate the relationship of team learning behavior to team performance. The relationship of team learning behavior and team performance was stronger in small teams than in medium and large teams. The stronger relationship of team learning to team performance in project teams was found. Finally, the stronger relationship of team learning behavior to team performance in academic setting than organizational setting was shown. However, in small teams and the academic setting the number of independent studies was less than 5, so it was important to interpret with caution. The implication and limitations of this research were discussed.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
ParkH. (2011). The relationship of team learning behavior to team performance: Meta-analysis. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(3), 651-672. Retrieved from
Systematic review and meta-analysis articles
Author Biography

HeeJin Park, Yonsei University

Human Behavior Research Institute


김문주 (2010). 팀 다양성과 팀 공유감이 팀 효과성에 미치는 영향 연구: 팀 학습의 매개효과를 중심으로. 박사학위논문, 이화여자대학교.
박헌준, 이종건, 성상현 (2004). 프로젝트 팀의 학습이 팀 성과에 미치는 영향, 인사조직연구, 12, 41-66.
박희진, 손영우 (2007). 팀 학습 및 교류활성기억과 팀 수행의 관계: 팀 맥락을 선행요인으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 20. 475-496.
박희진, 손영우 (2009). 임파워링 리더행동과 팀원들의 학습행동 및 교류기억의 관계: 팀 효능감, 혁신성향 및 리더에 대한 신뢰의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 22. 1-25.
오인수, 김광현, Darnold, T. C., 황종오, 유태용, 박영아, 박량희 (2007). 직무만족, 조직몰입, 성과, 이직의도 간의 관련성: 문헌고찰 및 메타분석. 인사조직연구, 15, 43-86.
유태용, 민병모 (2001). 다양한 장면에서 수행을 예측하기 위한 5요인 성격모델의 사용가능성과 한계: 국내 연구결과의 통합분석. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 14, 115-134.
전영욱, 김진모 (2009). 팀 학습에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 구조분석. Andragogy Today: Interdisciplinary Journal of Adult & Continuing Education, 12, 115-146.
최대정, 박동건 (2006). 조직공정성의 개념과 효과성: 국내 상관연구의 통합분석. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 19, 193-227.
Amabile, T. M. (1996). Creativity in context. Boulder, Co: Westview Press.
Argote, L., Gruenfeld, D., & Naquin, C. (2001). Group learning in organizations. In M. E. Turner (Ed.), Groups at work: Advances in theory and research (pp.369-411). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bantel, K. A., & Jackson, S. E. (1989). Top management innovations in banking: Does the composition of the top team make a difference? Strategic Management Journal, 10, 107-124.
Bell, S. T., Villado, A. J., Lukasik, M. A., Belau, L., & Briggs, A. (2010). Getting specific about demographic diversity variable and team performance relationships: A meta-analysis. Journal of Management, 36, 1-35.
Belout, A. (1997). Effects of human resource management on project effectiveness and success: Toward a new conceptual framework. International Journal of Project Management, 1, 21-26.
Bowers, C. A., Pharmer, J. A., & Salas, E. (2000). When member homogeneity is needed in work teams: A meta-analysis. Small Group Research, 31, 305-327.
Burson, M. C. (2002). Finding clarity in the midst of conflict: Facilitating dialogue and skillful discussion using a model from the Quaker tradition. Group Facilitation, 4, 23-29.
Chiocchio, F., & Essiembre, H. (2009). Cohesion and performance: A meta-analytic review of disparities between project teams, production teams, and service teams. Small Group Research, 40, 382-420.
Damanpour, F. (1996). Organizational complexity and innovation: Developing and testing multiple contingency models. Management Science, 42, 693-716.
De Dreu, C. K. W. (2007). Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: A motivated information processing perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 628-638.
De Dreu, C. K. W., & Weingart, L. R. (2003). Task versus relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 741-749.
Dennis, A. R., & Valacich, J. S. (1994). Multiple dialogues in computer brainstorms (Working paper). Bloomington: Indiana University.
Devine, J. D., & Philips, J. L. (2001). Do smarter teams do better: A meta-analysis of cognitive ability and team performance. Small Group Research, 32, 507-532.
Drach-Zahavy, A., & Somech, A. (2001). Understanding team innovation: The role of team processes and structures. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5, 111-123.
Druskat, V. U., & Kayes, D. C. (2000). Learning versus performance in short-term project teams. Small Group Research, 31, 328-353.
Edmondson, A. C. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350-383.
Ellis, A. P. J., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., Porter, C. O. H. L., West, B. J., & Moon, H. (2003). Team Learning: Collectively Connecting the Dots. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 821-835.
Field, A. P. (2001). Meta-analysis of correlation coefficients: A Monte Carlo comparison of fixed- and random-effects methods. Psychological Methods, 6, 161-180.
Gibson, C., & Vermeulen, F. (2003). A healthy divide: Subgroups as a stimulus for team learning behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 202-239.
Gooding, R. Z., & Wagner, J. A., III. (1985). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between size and performance: The productivity and efficiency of organizations and their subunits. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 462-481.
Gully, S. M., Devine, D. J., & Whitney, D. J. (1995). A meta-analysis of cohesion and performance: Effects of levels of analysis and task interdependence. Small Group Research, 26, 497-520.
Gully, S. M., Incalcaterra, K. A., Joshi, A., & Beaubien, J. M. (2002). A meta-analysis of team-efficacy, potency, and performance: Interdependence and level of analysis as moderators of observed relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 819-832.
Hackman, J. R. (1987). The design of work teams. In J. W. Lorsch (Eds.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp.315-342). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hirst, G., Van Knippenberg, D., & Zhou, J. (2009). A cross-level perspective on employee creativity: Goal orientation, team learning behavior, and individual creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 280-293.
Hoegl, M., & Parboteeah, P. (2006). Autonomy and teamwork in innovative projects. Human Resource Management, 45, 67-79.
Horwitz, S. K., & Horwitz, I. B. (2007). The effects of team diversity on team outcomes: A meta-analytic review of team demography. Journal of Management, 33, 987-1015.
Hulsheger, U. R., Anderson, N., & Salgado, J. F. (2009). Team-level predictors of innovation at work: A comprehensive meta-analysis spanning three decades of research, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1128-1145.
Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (1990). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hunter, J. E., & Schmidt, F. L. (2004). Methods of meta-analysis: Correcting error and bias in research findings(2nd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage.
Jackson, S. E., May, K. E., & Whitney, K. (1995). Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision-making teams. In R. A. Guzzo & E. Salas (Eds.) Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations (pp.204-261). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Klein, C., DiazGranados, D., Salas, E., Le, H., Burke, C. S., Lyons, R. & Goodwin, G. F. (2009). Does team building work? Small Group Research, 40, 181-222.
Kloppenborg, T. J., & Opfer, W. A. (2002). Forty years of project management research: Trends, interpretations, and predictions. In D. P. Slevine, D. I. Cleland, & J. K. Pinto (Eds.), The frontiers of project management research (pp. 3-29). Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organizations. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R. J. Klimoski (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp.333-375). New York: Wiley.
Lau, D. C., & Murnighan, J. K. (2005). Interactions within groups and subgroups: The effects of demographic faultlines. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 645-659.
Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Magjuka, R. J., & Baldwin, T. T. (1991). Team-based employee involvement programs: Effects of design and administration. Personnel Psychology, 44, 793-812.
Marks, M. A. (2006). The science of team effectiveness. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7, i.
Mullen, B., Symons, C., Hu, L., & Salas, E. (1989). Group size, leadership behavior, and subordinate satisfaction. Journal of General Psychology, 116, 115-170.
Noe, R. A. (2002). Employee training and development. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (2000). The knowledge-doing gap: How smart companies turn knowledge into action. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Rosenthal, R., & DiMatteo, M. R. (2001). Meta-analysis: Recent developments in quantitative methods for literature reviews. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 59-82.
Salas, E., DiazGranados, D., Klein, C., Burke, C. S., Stagl, K., Goodwin, G. F., & Halpin, S. M. (2008). Does team training improve team performance?: A meta-analysis. Human Factors, 50, 903-933.
Salas, E., Rozell, D., Mullen, B., & Driskell, J. E. (1999). The effect of team building on performance: An integration. Small Group Research, 30, 309-329.
Savelsbergh, C. M. J. H., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Poell, R. F. (2007). “ The good, the bad and the ugly”: Which team competences mediate the relationship between team learning and performance within project teams: In D. Jepson & D. Whitney (Eds.), Proceedings of the University Forum for HRD international research conference, June 27-29. Oxford, UK: Oxford Brookes University.
Savelsbergh, C. M. J. H., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Poell, R. F. (2009). The development and empirical validation of a multidimensional measurement instrument for team learning behaviors. Small Group Research, 40, 578-607.
Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. (1994). Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 580-607.
Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Steiner, I. D. (1972). Group process and productivity. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
Stewart, G. L. (2006). A meta-analytic review of relationships between team design features and team performance. Journal of Management, 32, 29-55.
Stock, W. A. (1994). Systematic coding for research synthesis. In H. Cooper & L. V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 97-110). New York: Ressell Sage Foundation.
Sundstrom, E., McIntyre, M., Halfhill, T., & Richards, H. (2000). Work groups: From the Hawthorne studies to work teams of the 1990s and beyond. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 4, 44-67.
Tannenbaum, S. (2002). A strategic view of organizational training and learning. In K. Kraiger (Eds.), Creating, implementing, and managing effective training and development (pp. 10-52). San Francisco: Jossy-Bass.
Tjepkema, S. (2003). The learning infrastructure of self-managing work teams (Dissertation). Enschede, The Netherlands: Twente University Press.
Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments: Team learning beliefs and behaviors. Small Group Research, 37, 490-521.
Van Der Vegt, G. S., & Bunderson, J. S. (2005). Learning and performance in multidisciplinary teams: The importance of collective team identification. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 532-547.
Van Der Vegt, G. S., Bunderson, J. S., & Kuipers, B. (2010). Why turnover matters in self-managing work teams: Learning, social integration, and task flexibility. Journal of Management, 36, 1168-1191.
van Offenbeek, M. (2001). Processes and outcomes of team learning. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 303-317.
Van Woerkom, M., & Van Engen, M. L. (2009). Learning from conflicts? The relations between task and relationship conflicts, team learning and team performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 381-404.
Walumbwa, F. O., Cropanzano, R., & Hartnell, C. A. (2009). Organizational justice, voluntary learning behavior, and job performance: A test of the mediating effects of identification and leader-member exchange. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 1103-1126.
West, M. A., & Farr, J. L. (1990). Innovation at work. In M. A. West & J. L. Farr (Eds.), Innovation and creativity at work: Psychological and organizational strategies (pp.3-13). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Whitener, E. M. (1990). Confusion of confidence intervals and credibility intervals in meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 315-321.
Wong, S. (2004). Distal and local group learning: Performance trade-offs and tensions. Organization Science, 15, 645-656.
Wong, S. & Sitkin, S. B. (2000). Shaping collective cognition and behavior through collective learning. Best Paper Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review, 18, 293-321.
Yeh, Y. J., & Chou, H. W. (2005). Team composition and learning behaviors in cross-functional teams. Social Behavior and Personality, 33, 391-402.
Yetton, P. W., & Bottger, P. C. (1982). Individual versus group problem solving: An empirical test of best-member strategy. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 29, 307-321.
Zellmer-Bruhn, M., & Gibson, C. (2006). Multinational organization context: Implications for team learning and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 501-518.