The relationship of team personality to team learning behavior Transformational leadership as a moderator

Main Article Content

HeeJin Park

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 5 factors(extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and neuroticism) of team personality on team learning behavior, the moderating effect of transformational leadership between five factors of team personality and team learning behavior, the relationship of team learning behavior and team performance. Data was collected by 227 individuals from 58 teams in 8 organizations and analyzed by correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The findings from correlation analysis were that team extraversion, team agreeableness, and team conscientiousness were positively related to team learning behavior and that team neuroticism was negatively related to team learning behavior. Additionally, team openness was somewhat significantly related to team learning behavior. The results from hierarchical regression analysis indicated that team extraversion and team agreeableness were positively related to team learning behavior but that team openness, team conscientiousness, and team neuroticism were not significantly related to team learning behavior. In addition, transformational leadership moderated the relationship between team agreeableness and team learning behavior. That is, in the low level of transformational leadership, team agreeableness was positively related to team learning behavior whereas team agreeableness was negatively related to team learning behavior in the high level of transformational leadership. Contrary to the expectations, transformational leadership did not moderate the relationship of team extraversion, team openness, team conscientiousness, and team neuroticism to team learning behavior. Finally, team learning behavior was significantly related to team performance.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
 

Article Details

Section
Empirical Articles
Author Biography

HeeJin Park, Yonsei University

Institute for Human Behavior Research

References

노연희, 손영우 (2012). 팀의 구성이 팀 수행에 미치는 영향: 인구통계학적 다양성, 인지 다양성 및 성격 특성을 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 25, 861-887.
박헌준, 이종건, 성상현 (2004). 프로젝트 팀의 학습이 팀 성과에 미치는 영향. 인사조직연구, 12, 41-66.
박희진 (2009). 팀 구성원들의 교류기억과 팀 멘탈모델의 관계: 팀 학습 행동의 매개를 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 22, 597-623.
박희진 (2011). 팀 학습 행동과 팀 수행의 관계: 메타분석. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 24, 651-672.
박희진, 손영우 (2007). 팀 학습 및 교류활성기억과 팀 수행의 관계: 팀 맥락을 선행요인으로. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 20, 475-496.
박희진, 손영우 (2009). 임파워링 리더행동과 팀원들의 학습행동 및 교류기억의 관계: 팀 효능감, 혁신성향 및 리더에 대한 신뢰의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 22, 1-25.
안여명, 유태용 (2010). 개인 및 팀 수준에서 성격과 적응수행 간의 관계: 일반적 자기효능감의 매개효과와 변혁적 리더십의 조절효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23, 155-179.
이준호, 김학수 (2012). 연구개발팀에서 팀 효능감과 팀 혁신성과간의 관계에서 팀 학습행동의 매개역할. 지식경영연구, 13, 105-124.
황종오, 유태용, 한태영 (2006). 팀 성격과 팀내 조직시민행동 규범이 구성원의 조직시민행동에 미치는 효과: 다수준 구성타당화 접근. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 23, 631-655.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. C. (1991). Multiple regression testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Ancona, D. G., & Caldwell, D. F. (1992). Demography and design: Predictors of new product team performance. Organization Science, 3, 321-341.
Argote, L., Gruenfeld, D., & Naquin, C. (1999). Group learning in organizations. In M. E. Turner (Eds.), Groups at Work: Advances in Theory and Research. Lawrence Erlbaum: Hillsdale, NJ.
Barrick, M. R., Stewart, G. L., Neubert, M. J., & Mount, M. K. (1998). Relating member ability and personality to work-team processes and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 377-391.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. & Bass R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York, NJ: Free Press.
Bell, S. T. (2007). Deep-level composition variables as predictors of team performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 595-615.
Boon, A., Raes, E., Kyndt, E., & Dochy, F. (2013). Team learning beliefs and behaviors in response teams. European Journal of Training and Development, 37, 357-379.
Chen, G., & Kanfer, R. (2006). Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 223- 267.
Chiu, C.-Y., Lin, H.-C., & Chien, M. S. (2009). Transformational leadership and team behavioral integraion: The mediating role of team learning. Paper Proceedings of the 69th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
Cohen, A., Doveh, E., & Eick, U. (2001). Statistical properties of the rwg(j) index of agreement. Psychological Methods, 6, 297-310.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
DeRue D. S., Wellman, N., Nahrgang, J. D., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64, 7-52.
Devine, D. J., Clayton, L. D., Philips, J. L., Dunford, B. B., & Melner, S. B. (1999). Teams in organizations: Prevalence, characteristics, and effectiveness. Small Group Research, 30, 678-711.
Digman, J. M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.
Drach-Zahavy, A., & Somech, A. (2001). Understanding team innovation: The role of team processes and structures. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5, 111-123.
Driskell, J. E., Goodwin, G. F., Salas, E., & O'Shea, P. G. (2006). What makes a good team player? Personality and team effectiveness. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10, 249-271.
Driskell, J. E., Hogan, R., & Salas, E. (1987). Personality and group performance. In C. Hendrick (Ed.), Group processes and intergroup relations: Review of personality and social psychology (Vol. 9, pp.91-112). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Druskat, V. U., & Kayes, D. C. (2000). Learning versus performance in short-term project teams. Small Group Research, 31, 328-353.
Eby, L. T., Meade, A. W., Parisi, A. G., & Douthitt, S. S. (1999). The development of an individual-level teamwork expectations measure and the application of a within-group agreement statistic to assess shared expectations for teamwork. Organizational Research Methods, 2, 366-394.
Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 350-383.
Ellis, A. P. J., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., Porter, C. O. H. L., West, B. J., & Moon, H. (2003). Team Learning: Collectively Connecting the Dots. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 821-835.
Ennabih, A., Van Riel, A. C. R., Sasovova, Z., & Semeijn, J. (2011). Balancing new product quality and innovativeness through learning and knowledge-sharing in NPD teams. Paper Proceedings of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
Esser, J. K. (1998). Alive and well after 25 years: A review of groupthink research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73, 116-141.
Gibson, C. & Vermeulen, F. (2003). A healthy divide: Subgroups as a stimulus for team learning behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, 48, 202-239.
Griffith, B., & Hesketh, B. (2004). Why openness to experience is not a good predictor of job performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 12, 243-251.
Groen, B. A. C., Evers, F., Gravesteijn, M., Molenveld, M., Schopman, M., & Veerbeek, R. (2011). Team learning through bottom-up development of team performance indicators. Paper Proceedings of the 71st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
Gully, S. M., & Phillips, J. M. (2005). A multilevel application of learning and performance orientations to individual, group and organizational outcomes. In J. J. Martocchio (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management, Vol. 24 (pp.1-51). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Ltd.
Hackman, J. R. (1987). The design of work teams. In J. Lorsch (Ed.), Handbook of organizational behavior (pp.315-342). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hofmann, D. A., & Jones, L. M. (2005). Leadership, collective personality, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 509-522.
Hough, L. M. (1992). The “Big Five” personality variables-Construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human Performance, 5, 139-155.
Humphrey, S. E., Hollenbeck, J. R., Meyer, C. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2007). Trait configurations in self-managed teams: A conceptual examination of the use of seeding for maximizing and minimizing trait variance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 885-892.
James, L. R., Demaree, R. J., & Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within group interrater reliability with and without response bias. Journal of Applied psychology, 69, 85-98.
Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Kamdar, D. & Van Dyne, L. (2007). The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1286-1298.
Keyes, C. L. M., Shmotkin, D. & Ryff, C. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1007-1022.
Klein, H. J., & Kozlowski, S. W. (2000). From micro to meso: critical steps in conceptualizing and conducting multilevel research. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 211-236.
Kostopoulos, K., Bozionelos, N., & Prastacos, G. P. (2009). Team learning activities and team effectiveness: The role of psychological safety and task conflict. Paper Proceedings of the 69th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Bell, B. S. (2003). Work groups and teams in organizations. In W. C. Borman & D. R. Ilgen (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 12, pp.333-375). New York: Wiley.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 73, 77-124.
Kristof-Brown, A., Barrick, M. R., & Stevens, C. K. (2005). When opposites attract: A multi-sample demonstration of complementary person-team fit on extraversion. Journal of Personality, 73, 935-958.
LePine, J. A. (2003). Team adaptation and postchange performance: Effects of team composition in terms of members' cognitive ability and personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 27-39.
LePine, J. A., Buckman, B. R., Crawford, E. R., & Methot, J. R. (2011). A review of research on personality in teams: Accounting for pathways spanning levels of theory and analysis. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 311-330.
LePine, J. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., & Hedlund, J. (1997). Effects of individual differences on the performance of hierarchical decision-making teams: Much more than g. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 803-811.
LePine, J. A., & Van Dyne, L. (2001). Voice and cooperative behavior in contrasting forms of contextual performance: Evidence of differential relationships with big five personality characteristics and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 326-336.
Levine, J. M., & Moreland, R. L. (1990). Progress in small group research. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 585-634.
Liu, S., Hu, J., Li, Y., Wang, Z., & Lin, X. (2014). Examining the cross-level relationship between shared leadership and learning in teams: Evidence from China. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 282-295.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (2008). Empirical and theoretical status of the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of personality theory and assessment (Vol. 1, Personality theories and models, pp.273-294). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
Morgeson, F. P., Reider, M. H., & Campion, M. A. (2005). Selecting individuals in team settings: The importance of social skills, personality characteristics, and teamwork knowledge. Personnel Psychology, 58, 583-611.
Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., & Stewart, G. L. (1998). Five-factor model of personality and performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. Human Performance, 11, 145-165.
Neuman, G. A., & Wright, J. (1999). Team effectiveness: Beyond skills and cognitive ability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 376-389.
O'Neill, T. A., & Allen, N. A. (2011). Personality and the prediction of team performance. European Journal of Personality, 25, 31-42.
O'Neill, T. A., & Kline, T. J. B. (2008). Personality as a predictor of teamwork: A business simulator study. North American Journal of Psychology, 10, 65-78.
Pelled, L. H., Eisenhardt, K. M., & Xin, K. R. (1999). Exploring the black box: An analysis of work group diversity, conflict, and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44, 1-28.
Phares, E. J. (1984). Introduction to personality. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Porter, C. O. L. H., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., Ellis, A. P. J., West, B. J., & Moon, H. (2003). Backing up bahaviors in teams: The role of personality and the legitimacy of need. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 391-403.
Prewett, M. S., Walvoord, A. A. G., Stilson, F. R. B., Rossi, M. E., & Brannick, M. T. (2009). The team personality-team performance relationship revisited: The impact of criterion choice, pattern of workflow, and method of aggregation. Human Performance, 22, 273-296.
Raes, E., Decuyper, S., Lismont, B., Van den Bossche, P., Kyndt, E., Demeyere, S., & Dochy, F. (2013). Facilitating team learning through transformational leadership. Instructional Science, 41, 287-305.
Reilly, R. R., Lynn, G. S., & Aronson, Z. H. (2002). The role of personality in new product development team performance. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 19, 39-58.
Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2000). Broad dispositions, broad aspirations: The intersection of the Big Five dimensions and major life goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1284-1296.
Sarin, S., & McDermott, C. (2003). The effect of team leader characteristics on learning, knowledge application, and performance of cross-functional new product development teams. Decision Sciences, 34, 707-739.
Savelsbergh, C. M. J. H., van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Poell, R. F. (2009). The development and empirical validation of a multidimensional measurement instrument for team learning behaviors. Small Group Research, 40, 578-607.
Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline. New York: Currency Doubleday.
Stewart, G. L., Fulmer, I. S., & Barrick, M. R. (2005). An exploration of member roles as a multilevel linking mechanism for individual traits and team outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 58, 343-365.
Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge era. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 298-318.
Van den Bossche, P., Gijselaers, W. H., Segers, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Social and cognitive factors driving teamwork in collaborative learning environments: Team learning beliefs and behaviors. Small Group Research, 37, 490-521.
Van Der Vegt, G. S., Bunderson, J. S., & Kuipers, B. (2010). Why turnover matters in self-managing work teams: Learning, social integration, and task flexibility. Journal of Management, 36, 1168-1191.
van Offenbeek, M. (2001). Processes and outcomes of team learning. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 10, 303-317.
van Woerkom, M., & van Engen, M. L. (2009). Learning from conflicts? The relations between task and relationship conflicts, team learning and team performance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 381-404.
Webber, S. S., Chen, G. Payne, S. C., Marsh, S. M., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2000). Enhancing team mental model measurement with performance appraisal practices. Organizational Research Methods, 3, 307-322.
Wong, S. (2004). Distal and local group learning: Performance trade-offs and tensions. Organization Science, 15, 645-656.
Yun, S., Faraj, S., & Sims, H. P. Jr. (2005). Contingent leadership and effectiveness of trauma resuscitation teams. Journal of Applied psychology, 6, 1288-1296.
Zellmer-Bruhn, M., & Gibson, C. (2006). Multinational organization context: Implications for team learning and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 501-518.