The relation between calling and career adaptability The moderating effects of living a calling

Main Article Content

Jihyun J Min
Esther Kang
Hyejoo J Lee


One’s calling can be divided into cognitive (“perceiving a calling”) and applied phases (“living a calling”), with the latter involving the execution of the former in life. We examined if living a calling moderate the relation between perceiving a calling and career adaptability. We hypothesized that the relation between perceiving a calling and career adaptability will differ according to the degree of calling execution by employees. However, for currently unemployed college students, we hypothesized that the level of calling execution would not influence the aforementioned relationship because they would have fewer opportunities for executing their perceived calling. The study results with 392 adult professionals and 248 college students indicated that living a calling significantly moderated the relation between perceiving a calling and career adaptability, in both adults and students but in opposite direction. Thus, whether one has a job or not, living a calling affect the relationship between perceiving a calling and career adaptability.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

Empirical Articles


정민영 (2014). 직장인의 소명실행과 주관적 안녕감의 관계: 삶의 의미, 진로정체감의 매개효과. 숙명여자대학교 석사학위 논문.
심예린, 유성경 (2012). 한국판 소명 척도(CVQ- K) 타당화. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 24, 847-872.
신윤정 (2013). 대학생의 진로소명, 진로자기효능감 및 내적동기와 진로적응성의 관계. 상담학연구, 14, 209-226.
통계청 (2017). 5월 동향
한국직업능력개발원 (2017). 지난 10년간 4년제 대졸자 노동시장의 변화 보고서.
Biemann, T., Fasang, A. E., & Grunow, D. (2011). Do economic globalization and industry growth destabilize careers? An analysis of career complexity and career patterns over time. Organization Studies, 32(12), 1639-1663.
Briscoe, J. P., & Hall, D. T. (1999). Grooming and picking leaders using competency frameworks: Do they work? An alternative approach and new guidelines for practice. Organizational Dynamics, 28(2), 37-52.
Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., & DeMuth, R. L. F. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 30-47.
Brown, C., Reedy, D., Fountain, J., Johnson, A., & Dichiser, T. (2000). Battered women's career decision-making self-efficacy: Further insights and contributing factors. Journal of Career Assessment, 8(3), 251-265.
Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. WW Norton & Company.
Budge, S. L., Tebbe, E. N., & Howard, K. A. S. (2010). The work experiences of transgender individuals: Negotiating the transition and career decision-making processes. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(4), 377-393.
Bunderson, J. S., & Thompson, J. A. (2009). The call of the wild: Zookeepers, callings, and the double-edged sword of deeply meaningful work. Administrative science quarterly, 54(1), 32-57.
Cardador, M. T., Dane, E., & Pratt, M. G. (2011). Linking calling orientations to organizational attachment via organizational instrumentality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 367-378.
Cunningham, G. B., & Singer, J. N. (2010). “You’ll Face Discrimination Wherever You Go”: Student Athletes’ Intentions to Enter the Coaching Profession. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(7), 1708-1727.
Cullen, K. L., Edwards, B. D., Casper, W. C., & Gue, K. R. (2014). Employees’ Adaptability and Perceptions of Change-Related Uncertainty: Implications for Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, and Performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 29(2), 269-280.
de Guzman, A. B. & Choi, K. (2013). The relations of employability skills to career adaptability among technical school students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(3), 199-207.
Dik, B. J., & Duffy, R. D. (2009). Calling and vocation at work definitions and prospects for research and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 37(3), 424-450.
Dik, B. J., Eldridge, B. M., Steger, M. F., & Duffy, R. D. (2012). Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS). Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 242-263.
Dobrow, S. R., & TOSTI-KHARAS, J. (2011). Calling: The development of a scale measure. Personnel Psychology, 64(4), 1001-1049.
Dolan, E., Braun, B., Katras, M. J., & Seiling, S. (2008). Getting off TANF: Experiences of rural mothers. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 89(3), 456-465.
Douglass, R. P., & Duffy, R. D. (2015). Calling and career adaptability among undergraduate students. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 86, 58-65.
Douglass, R. P., Duffy, R. D., & Autin, K. L. (2016). Living a calling, nationality, and life satisfaction: A moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Career Assessment, 24(2), 253-269.
Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., Autin, K. L., & Bott, E. M. (2013). Calling and life satisfaction: It’s not about having it, it’s about living it. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(1), 42-52.
Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., & Bott, E. M. (2012). Calling and life satisfaction among undergraduate students: Investigating mediators and moderators. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(3), 469-479.
Duffy, R. D., Dik, B. J., & Steger, M. F. (2011). Calling and work-related outcomes: Career commitment as a mediator. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(2), 210-218.
Duffy, R. D., & Autin, K. L. (2013). Disentangling the link between perceiving a calling and living a calling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 219-227.
Duffy, R. D., & Blustein, D. L. (2005). The relationship between spirituality, religiousness, and career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(3), 429-440.
Duffy, R. D., Bott, E. M., Allan, B. A., Torrey, C. L., & Dik, B. J. (2012). Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: Testing a moderated, multiple mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 50-59.
Duffy, R. D., & Dik, B. J. (2009). Beyond the self: External influences in the career development process. The Career Development Quarterly, 58(1), 29-43.
Duffy, R. D., & Dik, B. J. (2013). Research on calling: What have we learned and where are we going? The Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 428-436.
Fiori, M., Bollmann, G., & Rossier, J. (2015). Exploring the path through which career adaptability increases job satisfaction and lowers job stress: The role of affect. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 113-121.
Frazier, P. A., Tix, A. P., & Barron, K. E. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), 115-134.
Frey, C. B., & Osborne, M. A. (2017). The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to computerisation?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 114, 254-280.
Gardner, P. D., & Lambert, S. E. (1993). It’s a hard, hard, hard, hard, hard, hard world. Journal of Career Planning and Employment, 53(2), 41-49.
Gazica, M. W., & Spector, P. E. (2015). A comparison of individuals with unanswered callings to those with no calling at all. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 91, 1-10.
Guan, Y., Deng, H., Sun J., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Ye, L. Fu, R., Wang, Y., Zhang, S., & Li, Y. (2013). Career adaptability, job search self-efficacy and outcomes: A three-wave investigation among Chinese university graduates. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 561-570.
Guo, Y., Guan, Y., Yang, X., Xu, J., Zhou, X., She, Z., Jiang, P., Wang, Y., Pan, J., Deng, Y. Pan, Z., and Fu, M., (2014). Career adaptability, calling and the professional competence of social work students in China: A career construction perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 394-402.
Hall, D. T., & Chandler, D. E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 26(2), 155-176.
Hirschi, A. (2009). Career adaptability development in adolescence: Multiple predictors and effect on sense of power and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(2), 145-155.
Hirschi, A., & Herrmann, A. (2012). Vocational identity achievement as a mediator of presence of calling and life satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 20(3), 309-321.
Hirschi, A., & Herrmann, A. (2013). Calling and career preparation: Investigating developmental patterns and temporal precedence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(1), 51-60.
Hunter, I., Dik, B. J., & Banning, J. H. (2010). College students’ perceptions of calling in work and life: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76(2), 178-186.
Johnston C. S., Luciano, E. C., Maggiori, C., Ruch, W., & Rossier, J. (2013). Validation of the German version of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale and its relation to orientations to happiness and work stress. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 295-304.
Lee, S. J., & Vinokur, A. D. (2007). Work barriers in the context of pathways to the employment of welfare-to-work clients. American Journal of Community Psychology, 40(3-4), 301-312.
Le Maistre, C., & Paré, A. (2004). Learning in two communities: The challenge for universities and workplaces. Journal of Workplace Learning, 16(1), 44-52.
Li, Y., Guan, Y., Wang, F., Zhou, X., Guo, K., Jiang, P., Mo, Z., Li, Y., & Fang, Z. (2015). Big-five personality and BIS/BAS traits as predictors of career exploration: The mediation role of career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89, 39-45.
Lobene, E. V., & Meade, A. W., (2013). The effect of career calling and perceived overqualification on work outcomes for primary and secondary school teachers. Journal of Career Development, 40(6), 508-530.
Maggori, C., Johnston, C. S., Krings, F., Massoudi, K., & Rossier, J. (2013). The role of career adaptability and work conditions on general and professional well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 437-449.
Ohme, M., & Zacher, H. (2015). Job performance ratings: The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 87, 161-170.
Pasmore, W. A. (2011). Tipping the balance: Overcoming persistent problems in organizational change. In Research in organizational change and development (pp. 259-292). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Perrone, L., & Vickers, M. H. (2003). Life after graduation as a “very uncomfortable world”: An Australian case study. Education and Training, 45(2), 69-78.
Praskova, A., Hood, M., & Creed, P. A. (2014). Testing a calling model of psychological career success in Australian young adults: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(1), 125-135.
Porfeli, E. J., & Savickas, M. L. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-USA Form: Psychometric properties and relation to vocational identity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 748-753.
Pololi, L., Cooper, L. A., & Carr, P. (2010). Race, disadvantage and faculty experiences in academic medicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(12), 1363-1369.
Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (2000). The role of dispositions, entry stressors, and behavioral plasticity theory in predicting newcomers’' adjustment to work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), 43-62.
Savickas, M. L. (1997). Adaptability: An integrative construct for life-span, life-space theory. Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 247-259.
Savickas, M. L. (2005). The theory and practice of career construction. Career development and counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work, 1, 42-70.
Savickas, M. L. & Porfeli, E. J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale: Construction, reliability, and measurement equivalence across 13 countries. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 661-673.
Schwab, K. (2017). The fourth industrial revolution. Penguin UK.
Shollen, S. L., Bland, C. J., Finstad, D. A., & Taylor, A. L. (2009). Organizational climate and family life: How these factors affect the status of women faculty at one medical school. Academic Medicine, 84(1), 87-94.
Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development: In D. Brown., & L. Brooks(Eds.). Career choice and development: Applying contemporary theories to practice(2nd ed.) (pp. 197-261). Jossey-Bass.
Tak, J. (2012). Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Korea form: psychometric properties and construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(3), 712-715.
Thompson, E., & Feidman, D. B. (2010). Let your life speak: Assessing the effectiveness of a program to explore meaning, purpose, and calling with college students. Journal of Employment Counseling, 47(1), 12-19.
Tsai, C. F., & Yen, Y. F. (2008). A model to explore the mystery between organizations’ downsizing strategies and firm performance: Integrating the perspectives of organizational change, strategy and strategic human resource management. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 21(3), 367-384.
Wrzesniewski, A., McCauley, C., Rozin, P., & Schwartz, B. (1997). Jobs, careers, and callings: People's relations to their work. Journal of Research in Personality, 31(1), 21-33.
Xie, B., Xia, M., Xin, X., & Zhou, W. (2016). Linking calling to work engagement and subjective career success: The perspective of career construction theory. Journal of Research in Personality, 94, 70-78.
Zacher, H. (2014). Career adaptability predicts subjective career success above and beyond personality traits and core self-evaluations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 84(1), 21-30.