Main Article Content
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hierarchical organizational structure and performance-based human resource system on climate of silence and silence behavior and to reveal this process. Specifically, We will examine the effect the hierarchical organizational structure and performance-based human resource system on organizational silence, the dual mediated effects on climate of silence and psychological unsafety. A total of 300 employee working in a variety of difference fields in Korea participated in an on-line survey, These results showed that hierarchical organizational structure had a positive effect on climate of silence and Performance-based human resource system had a negative effect on climate of silence. Climate of silence had a positive effect on psychological unsafety and Psychological unsafety had a positive effect on defensive silence. The defensive silence a positive effect on acquiescent silence. The hierarchical organizational structure had a effect on defensive silence, through climate of silence and psychological unsafefy, and had a effect on acquiescent silence, through climate of silence, psychology unsafety, and defensive silence. this study is significance to integrately consider the effect of organizational structure, culture and Psychological factor on silence behavior. On the basis of the results, the implications and future research directions were discussed.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aeen, M. N, Zarei, R., & Matin, H. Z. (2014). Do the Organizational Rumors Emphasize the Influence of Organizational Silence over Organizational Commitment?. Journal of Social Issues & Humanities, 2(1), 88-93. http://pascalfroissart.free.fr/3-cache/2014-aeen-zarei-matin.pdf
Baer, M., & Frese, M. (2003). Innovation is not enough: Climates for initiative and psychological safety, process innovations, and firm performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 45-68. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.179
Bandalos, D. L., Finney, S. J. (2001). Item parceling issues in structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides & R. E. Schumacker (Eds.), New developments and techniques in structural equation modeling (pp. 269-296). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410601858-15
Becker B.E., Huselid M.A. (1998). Human resources strategies, complementaries and firm performance, School of Management. (State University of New York). http://mgt2.buffalo.edu/files/faculty/ohr/becker/Publications/HumanResourcesStrategies.pdf
Blackburn, R. S. (1982). Dimensions of Structure: A Review and Reappraisal. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 59–66. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1982.4285454
Brinsfield, C. T., Edwards, M., & Greenberg, J. (2009). Voice and silence in organizations: Historical review and current conceptualizations. In J. Greenberg & M. Edwards (Eds.), Voice and Silence in Organizations (pp. 3–33). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.
Brinsfield, C. T. (2013). Employee silence motives: Investigation of dimensionality and development of measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(5), 671-697. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1829
Cadsby, C. B., Song, F., & Tapon, F. (2007). Sorting and incentive effects of pay for performance: An experimental investigation. Academy of management journal, 50(2), 387-405. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.24634448
Chang, Y. S. (2006). A Study on the Influences of Organizational Structure Perception, Empowerment, Locus of Control on Knowledge Activities by Financial Institutions. Journal of Business Research, 21(2), 117-151. https://www.kci.go.kr/kciportal/ci/sereArticleSearch/ciSereArtiView.kci?sereArticleSearchBean.artiId=ART001127929
Choe, T. S. (2013). Rewriting business administration [다시 쓰는 경영학]. Seoul: 21세기 북스. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1003514072
Choi, M. O., Park, D. G. (2017). The Development and Validation of the Silence Motivation Scale. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 239-270. https://doi.org/10.20406/kjcs.2017.05.23.2.239
Choi, S. G., Ji, S. G. (2012). A study on the Impact of Supervisor’s Behavior on the Psychological Safety, Silence, and ProSocial Voice. Korean Academy of Organization & Management, 34(4), 99-123.
Chung, H. S. (2013). Discrimination between Silence and Voice Behavior in measurement and the incremental validity. The Korean Journal of Culture and Social Issues, 19(1), 1-17. http://www.dbpia.co.kr/journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE06373931
Chung, H. S., Ha, H. K., Park, D. G. (2010). The Influence of Organizational Silence on Turnover Intention: Mediated Moderating Effect of Self-Efficacy through Organizational Cynicism, Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 23(1), 89-104. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.23.1.201003.89
Chung, H. S., Park, D. G. (2013). Contagion of Silence Behaviors. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 26(1), 73-101. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.26.1.201302.73
Collins, C. J., & Smith, K. G. (2006). Knowledge exchange and combination: The role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of management journal, 49(3), 544-560. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2006.21794671
Daft, R. L. (1992). Organization theory and design, St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A., & van Knippenberg, D. (2007). Motivated Information Processing in Group Judgment and Decision Making. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12(1), 22–49. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868307304092
Delery, J. E., & Doty, D. H. (1996). Modes of Theorizing in Strategic Human Resource Management: Tests of Universalistic, Contingency, and Configurational Performance Predictions. Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 802–835. https://doi.org/10.5465/256713
Detert, J. R., & Burris, E. R. (2007). Leadership Behavior and Employee Voice: Is the Door Really Open? Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 869–884. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2007.26279183
Dorjgotov, E. O. (2015). The effects of LMX, climate of silence and job complexity on the innovative behavior: The moderating effect of need for achievement. (Graduate School Kumoh National Institute of Technology)
Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 350-383. https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999
Edmondson, A. (2004). Psychological Safety, Trust, and Learning in Organizations: AGroup-Level Lens. In Kramer R. & Cook K. (Eds.), Trust and Distrust In Organizations: Dilemmas and Approaches (pp. 239-272). Russell Sage Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/9781610443388.13
Edmondson, A. C., Lei, Z. (2014). Psychological safety: The history, renaissance, and future of an interpersonal construct. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 23-43. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-031413-091305
Festinger, L. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. CA: Stanford University Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781912282432
Fornell, C., Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980
Go, D. Y. (2017). A Meta-Analysis of Organizational Silence in Korea. Korean Journal of Public Administration, 26(2), 95-132. http://www.papersearch.net/thesis/article.asp?key=3509894&code=CP00000006
Go, D. Y., Kang J. S. (2014). Definition of Korean Organizational Silence and verification of the survey tool. Korean Public Personnel Administration Review, 13(1), 141-159.
Go, D. Y., Kang J. S. (2017). Conceptualization and development of measurement tools for the silence phenomenon in Korean administrative culture: Focus on adaptive silence. Korean Public Personnel Administration Review, 29-55. https://doi.org/10.18333/KPAR.51.4.29
Go, D. Y., Kang, J. S., & Kim, G. G. (2015). A study on the impact of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behaviour: The mediating effect of organizational silence. The Korean Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 223-261.
Greenberg, J., Edwards, M. S. (2009). VOICE AND SILENCE IN ORGANIZATIONS(UK, USA : Emerald Group Publishing), 3-298.
Hage, J., & Aiken, M. (1967). Relationship of centralization to other structural properties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 72-92. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391213
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis. NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hong, S. H. (2000). The Criteria for Selecting Appropriate Fit Indices in Structural Equation Modeling and Their Rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 161-177.
Jo, A. R., Yoo, T. Y. (2014). The Mediating Effect of Silence Motivation on the Relationships among Employee Silence Behavior, Perceived Supervisor Support, and Perceived Procedural Justice. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 27(2), 291-315. https://doi.org/10.24230/ksiop.27.2.201405.291
Jung, K. T., Lee, J, I., Tae, W. Y., & Sung, S. H. (2002). A Proposal and a Proposal of the Performance-based Human Resource System. Samsung Economic Research CEO Information, 357, 1-23. http://www.seri.org/db/dbReptV.html?g_menu=02&s_menu=0202&pubkey=db20020718001
Jung, K. T., Park, K. G., & Lim, H. C (2008). The Effects of Performance-based HR Practices on Firm Performance. Korean Journal of Resources Development, 11(2), 79-106.
Kessel, M., Kratzer, J., & Schultz, C. (2012). Psychological safety, knowledge sharing, and creative performance in healthcare teams. Creativity and innovation management, 21(2), 147-157. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8691.2012.00635.x
Kim, Y. H., Ryu, E. Y., Lee, K. H., & Seo, Y. S. (2010). A Study on the Relationships among Organizational Structure, Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction at Central Government Agencies in Korea. Korean policy sciences review, 14(4), 317-341.
Knoll, M., & van Dick, R. (2012). Do I Hear the Whistle…? A First Attempt to Measure Four Forms of Employee Silence and Their Correlates. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(2), 349–362. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1308-4
Kwon, B. K., Lee, K. E, & Chun, Y. H. (2018). Bureaucratic Structure, Strategy, and Performance - An Empirical Analysis on Korean Quasi-Governmental Organizations. Korean Society and Public Administration, 119-143.
Lee, A. R. (2012). A Study of Moderating Variable on Organizational Silence. (Graduate School of Sungkyunkwan University)
Lee, M. W., Yang, H. S., & Kim, H. Y. (2011). The effects of high performance HR system on firm performance: Examining the causal relationship by adopting a profile deviation method. Korean management review, 40(3), 781-802. https://www.dbpia.co.kr/journal/articleDetail?nodeId=NODE06079857
Meyerson, D. E. (2001). Tempered Radicals: How People Use Difference to Inspire Change at Work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Milliken, F. J., Morrison, E. W., & Hewlin, P. F. (2003). An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of management studies, 40(6), 1453-1476. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00387
Morrison, E. W., Milliken, F. J. (2000). Organizational silence: a barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world. Academy of Management Review, 25, 706-725. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.3707697
Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The Spiral of Silence a Theory of Public Opinion. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 43–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1974.tb00367.x
O'dell, C., & Grayson, C. J. (1998). If only we knew what we know: Identification and transfer of internal best practices. California management review, 40(3), 154-174. https://doi.org/10.2307/41165948
Oh, J. R. (2009). The nature and limits of the performance-based personnel management system. The 2009 Seoul Association For Public Administration Conference proceedings, 227-296.
Ostroff, C., Kinicki, A. J., & Muhammad, R. S. (2013). Organizational culture and climate. In I. B. Weiner, N. W. Schmitt, & S. Highhouse (Eds.), Handbook of psychology: Industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 643–676). Hoboken, NJ, US: John Wiley & Sons Inc. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118133880.hop212024
Park, C., & Keil, M. (2009). Organizational silence and whistle‐blowing on IT projects: An integrated model. Decision Sciences, 40(4), 901-918. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2009.00255.x
Park, C. M. (2017). The Effect of Leader's Humor Styles on Team Meeting Effectiveness and Team Effectiveness: Focused on the mediating effect of Employee's Voice Behavior and the moderating effect of Group Voice Climate. (Hoseo University)
Park, S. W. (2018.04.12). an average of 1.4 meetings a day for office workers. [Web page]. Job Korea. https://www.jobkorea.co.kr/GoodJob/Tip/View?News_No=14330&schCtgr=100002
Pfeffer, J. (1994). Competitive advantage through people. California management review, 36(2), 9.
Pinder, C. C., Harlos, K. P. (2001). Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 20, 331-369.
Premeaux, S. F., & Bedeian, A. G. (2003). Breaking the silence: The moderating effects of self‐monitoring in predicting speaking up in the workplace. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6), 1537-1562. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00390
Pugh, D. S., Hickson, D. J., Hinings, C. R., & Turner, C. (1968). Dimensions of organization structure. Administrative science quarterly, 65-105. https://doi.org/10.2307/2391262
Russell, D. W., Kahn, J. H., Spoth, R., & Altmaier, E. M. (1998). Analyzing data from experimental studies: A latent variable structural equation modeling approach. Journal of counseling psychology, 45(1), 18.
Ryan, J. D., Oestreich, D. K. (1991). Driving fear out of the workplace: How to overcome the invisible barriers to quality, productivity, and innovation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Salancik, G.R., Pfeffer.J. (1978). A social information processing approach to job attitude sand task design. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 224-253. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392563
Schneider, B., Reichers, A. E. (1983). On the etiology of climates. Personnel psychology, 19-39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1983.tb00500.x
Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2011). Perspectives on organizational climate and culture.
Seo, K. A. (2015). A Study on Determinants Influencing of Performance-based Human Resource Management Utilization(The Graduate School Seoul National University), Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10371/130671
Sim, J. Y. (2010). The influence of performance-oriented personnel system upon members' organizational commitment. (Chung Ang University)
Song H. J., Kim, Y. H., & Yoon, K. (2016). The effects of Airline Flight Attendant`s Perception of Organizational politics on Organizational commitment, Silence Behavior and Turnover Intention. Tourism Research, 41(3), 39-64.
Steve, M. J., Thomas W. B.(2017). Organizational Psychology (3rd ed.). Seoul: Sigmapress.
The Korea Chamber of Commerce ＆ Industry. (2017). A Report on the Present Situation and Improvement of Meeting in Domestic Companies [국내기업의 회의문화 실태와 개선해법 보고서]. [Web page]. Seoul: The Korea Chamber of Commerce ＆ Industry. http://www.korcham.net/nCham/Service/Economy/appl/KcciReportDetail.asp?SEQ_NO_C010=20120931410&CHAM_CD=B001
The Korea Chamber of Commerce ＆Industry. (2018). A report on talent awards that the top 100 companies want[100대 기업이 원하는 인재상 보고서]. [Web page]. Seoul: The Korea Chamber of Commerce ＆ Industry. http://www.korcham.net/nCham/Service/Economy/appl/KcciReportDetail.asp?SEQ_NO_C010=20120931990&CHAM_CD=B001
Vakola, M., & Bouradas. D. (2005). Antecedents and consequences of organisational silence: an empirical investigation. Employee Relations, 27(5), 441-458. https://doi.org/10.1108/01425450510611997
Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Botero, I. C. (2003). Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1359-1392. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00384
Wang, Y. D., Hsieh, H. H. (2013). Organizational ethical climate, perceived organizational support, and employee silence: A cross-level investigation. Human Relations, 66(6), 783-802. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726712460706
Whiteside, D. B., & Barclay, L. J. (2012). Echoes of Silence: Employee Silence as a Mediator Between Overall Justice and Employee Outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(2), 251–266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1467-3
Yang, C. S. (1992). A Study on the Humanization Theory and its Concepts. Journal of Economic Research, 13(1), 171-199. http://kiss.kstudy.com/thesis/thesis-view.asp?key=265323