The newcomer’s psychological contract breach and its change

Main Article Content

KyungMin Kim
HyoungKoo Moon

Abstract

This study has two primary aims: (1) to investigate the relationship between how the newcomer perceives employer promises psychological contract breach, and (2) to understand how these rates change over time. A total of 222 newcomers at major Korean companies were surveyed twice at a three-month interval. Results showed that both levels of perceived employer promise and psychological contract breach decreased over time as individuals accumulated real job experience. Also, the change in perceived employer promises was positively related to the change in breach perception. As their perceived employer promise level decreases over time, newcomers perceived fewer psychological contract breaches. This study provides evidence that a newcomer’s breach perception could result from overestimation of employer promise and that job experience plays a role in adjusting employer promise perception to an appropriate level, thereby lowering breach perception. These findings suggest that newcomers’ breach perception may be different from that of existing employees, due to incomplete initial understanding of employer promise, leading to increased frequency of breach perception. Practitioners may also benefit from education on new approaches for managing newcomers’ breach perception.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...
 

Article Details

Section
Empirical Articles
Author Biographies

KyungMin Kim, Korea University

Business School

HyoungKoo Moon, Korea University

Business School

References

김영국 (2006). 신입사원 채용과정에서 현실적 직무사전소개의 영향. 외식경영연구, 9(1), 91-108.
신수식 & 신창근 (2001). 신입사원에 대한 현실적 직무 소개가 입사 후 직무태도에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구. 조직과 인사관리연구, 25(2), 375-404.
Adkins, C. L. (1995). Previous work experience and organizational socialization: A longitudinal examination. Academy of Management Journal, 38(3), 839-862.
Ashforth, B. E. (2001). Role transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ashforth, B. E., & Saks, A. M. (1995). Work-role transitions: A longitudinal examination of the Nicholson model. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 68(2), 157-175.
Ashforth, B. E., & Saks, A. M. (1997). Organizational Socialization: Making Sense of the Past and Present as a Prologue for the Future. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(2), 234-279.
Boswell, W. R., Boudreau, J. W., & Tichy, J. (2005). The relationship between employee job change and job satisfaction: The honeymoon- hangover effect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(5), 882-892.
Boswell, W. R., Shipp, A. J., Payne, S. C., & Culbertson, S. S. (2009). Changes in newcomer job satisfaction over time: Examining the pattern of honeymoons and hangovers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(4), 844-858.
Brislin, R. W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. J. Lonner & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Field methods in cross- cultural research (pp. 137-164). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Cassar, V., Buttigies, S. C., & Briner, R. B. (2005). Causal explanations of psychological contract breach characteristics. The Psychologist- Manager Journal, 16(2), 85-106.
Conway, N. & Briner, R. (2005). A daily diary study of affective responses to psychological contract breach and exceeded promises. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(3), 287- 302.
De Vos, A., Buyens, D., & Schalk, R. (2003). Psychological contract development during organizational socialization: Adaptation to reality and the role of reciprocity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5), 537-559.
Falcione, R. L., & Wilson, C. E. (1988). Socialization processes in organizations. In G. M. Goldhaber & G. A. Barnett (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 151- 169). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Gioia, D. A. & Manz, C. C. 1985. Linking cognition and behavior: A script processing interpretation of vicarious learning. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 527-539.
Gorsuch, Richard L. (1983) Factor Analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Guest, D. & Conway, N. (2000). The public sector and the psychological contract. IPD Research Report. London: IPD.
Hom, P. W., & Griffeth, R. W. (1991). Structural equations modeling test of a turnover theory: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(3), 350-366.
Krausz, M., & Fox, S. (1981). Two dimensions of realistic previews and their impact upon initial expectations, expectation fulfillment, satisfaction, and intention to quit. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2(3), 211-216.
Lester, R. E. (1987). Organizational culture, uncertainty reduction, and the socialization of new organizational members. In S. Thomas (Ed.), Culture and communication: Methodology, behavior, artifacts, and institutions (pp. 105-113). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Lawler, E. E., Kuleck, W. J., Rhode, J. G., & Sorenson, J. E. (1975). Job choice and post decision dissonance. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 13(1), 133-145.
Lester, S. W., Turnley, W. H., Bloodgood, J. M., & Bolino, M. C. (2002). Not seeing eye to eye: Differences in supervisor and subordinate perceptions of and attributions for psychological contract breach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23(1), 39-56.
Major, D. A., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T., & Gardner, P. D. (1995). A longitudinal investigation of newcomer expectations, early socialization outcomes, and the moderating effects of role development factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(3), 418-431.
Meglino, B. M., & DeNisi, A. S. (1987). Realistic job previews: Some thoughts on their more effective use in managing the flow of human resources. Human Resource Planning, 10(3), 157- 167.
Meglino, B. M., DeNisi, A. S., & Youngblood, S. A. (1988). Effects of realistic job preview: A comparison using and enhancement and a reduction preview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73(2), 259-266.
Milkovich, G. T. & Boudreau, J. W. (1997). Personnel/human resource management: A diagnostic approach. Homewood, IL: Richard Irwin, Inc.
Morrison, E. W. & Robinson, S. L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: A model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22(1), 226-256.
Morrison, E. (1993). A longitudinal study of the effects of information seeking on newcomer socialization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(2), 173-183.
Montes, S. D., & Zweig, D. (2009). Do promise matter? An exploration of the role of promise in psychological contract breach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1243-1260.
Ostroff, C., & Kozlowksi, S. W. J. (1992). Organizational socialization as a learning process: The role of information acquisition. Personnel Psychology, 45(4), 849-874.
Porter, L. W., Lawler, E. E., & Hackman, J. R. (1975). Behavior in organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ring, P. S. & Rands, G. P. (1989). Sensemaking, understanding, and committing: Emergent interpersonal transaction processes in the evolution of 3M’s microgravity research program. In A. H. Van de Ven, H. L., Angle and M. S. Poole (Eds.), Research on the management of innovation: The Minnesota studies (pp. 337-366). New York: Ballinger.
Robinson, S. L. (1996). Trust and breach of the psychological contract. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 574-599.
Robinson, S. L. & Morrison, E. W. (2000). The development of psychological contract breach and violation: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(5), 525-546.
Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: Understanding written and unwritten agreement. Sage Publications.
Saks, A. M. & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Organizational socialization: Making sense of the past and present as a prologue for the future. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(2), 234- 279.
Taylor, S. M. & Tekleab, A. G. (2003). Aren’t there two parties in an employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organization-employee agreement on contract obligations and violations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5), 585-608.
Tekleab, A. G., & Taylor, M. S. (2003). Aren’t there two parties in an employment relationship? Antecedents and consequences of organizational-employee agreement on contract obligations and violations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24(5), 585-608.
Turnley, W. H. & Feldman, D. C. (2000). Re-examining the effects of psychological contract violations: Unmet expectations and job dissatisfaction as mediators. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(1), 25-42.
Tekleab, A. G., Takeuchi, R., & Taylor, M. S. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 146-157.
Van Maanen, J. (1975). Police Socialisation: a longitudinal examination of job attitudes in an urban police department. Administrative Science Quarterly, 20(2), 207-228.
Vroom, V. H., & Deci, E. L. (1971). The stability of post-decision dissonance: A follow-up study of the job attitudes of business school graduates. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 6(1), 36-49.
Wanous, J. P. (1980). Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, orientation and socialization of newcomers. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in Organizations. Sage Publications, Inc.