The newcomer’s psychological contract breach and its change

Main Article Content

KyungMin Kim
HyoungKoo Moon


This study has two primary aims: (1) to investigate the relationship between how the newcomer perceives employer promises psychological contract breach, and (2) to understand how these rates change over time. A total of 222 newcomers at major Korean companies were surveyed twice at a three-month interval. Results showed that both levels of perceived employer promise and psychological contract breach decreased over time as individuals accumulated real job experience. Also, the change in perceived employer promises was positively related to the change in breach perception. As their perceived employer promise level decreases over time, newcomers perceived fewer psychological contract breaches. This study provides evidence that a newcomer’s breach perception could result from overestimation of employer promise and that job experience plays a role in adjusting employer promise perception to an appropriate level, thereby lowering breach perception. These findings suggest that newcomers’ breach perception may be different from that of existing employees, due to incomplete initial understanding of employer promise, leading to increased frequency of breach perception. Practitioners may also benefit from education on new approaches for managing newcomers’ breach perception.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Kim, K., & Moon, H. (2015). The newcomer’s psychological contract breach and its change. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 28(4), 749–766.
Empirical Articles
Author Biographies

KyungMin Kim, Korea University

Business School

HyoungKoo Moon, Korea University

Business School


매일경제 (2015.12.18.) 사내정치, 조직에 독이라고? 잘쓰면 윤활유다!

중앙SUNDAY (2015.5.31.). 직장인 88% “사내정치 있다”...63%는 “불이익 경험”.

Aiken, L. S. & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Aziz, A. K., May, K. and Crotts, J. C. (2002). Relations of machiavellian behavior with sales performance of stockbrokers. Psychological Reports, 90(2), 451-460. DOI:

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. DOI:

Bowen, D. E., Ledford, G. C., & Nathan, B. R. (1991). Hiring for the organization, not the job. Academy of Management Executive, 5, 35-51.

Bretz, R. D. & Judge, T. A. (1994). Person- organization fit and the theory of work adjustment: Implications for satisfaction, tenure, and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44, 32-54. DOI:

Cable, D. M. & DeRue, D. S. (2002). The Convergent and discriminant validity of subjective fit perceptions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 875-884. DOI:

Chatman, J. A. (1989). Improving interactional organizational research: A model of person- organization fit. Academy of Management Review, 14, 333-349. DOI:

Christie, R., & Geis, F. L. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. New Tork: Academic Press.

Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cropanzano, R., Howes, J. C., Grandey, A. A., & Toth, P. (1997). The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 159-180. DOI:<159::AID-JOB795>3.0.CO;2-D

Dahling, J. J., Whitaker, B. G., & Levy, P. E. (2009). The development and validation of a new machiavellianism scale. Journal of Management, 35, 219-257. DOI:

Fandt, P. M. & Ferris, G. R. (1990). The management of information and impressions: When employees behave opportunistically. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 45, 140-158. DOI:

Ferris, G. G., Adams, G., Kolodiinsky, R. W., Hochwarter, W. A., & Ammeter, A. P. (2002). Perception of organizational politics: Theory and research directions. In F. J. Yammarino & F. Dansereau (Eds.), Resarch in multi-level issues, 1: The many faces of multi-level issues, 179-254. Oxford: JAI Press/Elsevier Science. DOI:

Ferris, G. R. & Kacmar, K. M. (1992). Perceptions of organizational politics. Journal of Management, 18, 93-116. DOI:

Ferris, G. R., Fedor, D. B., & King, T. R. (1994). A political conceptualization of managerial behavior. Human Resource Management Review, 4, 1-34. DOI:

Ferris, G. R., Russ, G. S., & Fandt, P. M. (1989). Politics in organizations, 143-170, In E. Vigoda, Developments in organizational politics. Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc, USA.

Fraedrich, J., Ferrell, O. C. and Pride, W. (1989). An empirical examination of three machiavellian concepts: Advertisers vs. the general public. Journal of Business Ethics, 8(9), 687-694. DOI:

Gilmore, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Dulebohn, J., & Harrell-Cook, G. (1996). Organizational politics and employee attendance. Group & Organizational Management, 21, 481-494. DOI:

Griffin, R. W. & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (2004). An introduction to the dark side. In R. W. Griffin & A. M. O’Leavy-Kelly(Eds.), The dark side of organizational behavior, 1-19, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hair, J. F. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C., (1998). Multivariate data analysis, 5th edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Harrell, W. A. (1980). Retaliatory aggression by high and low machiavellians against remorseful and non-remorseful wrongdoers. Social Behavior and Personality, 8(2), 217-220. DOI:

Harris, K. & Kacmar, K. M. (2005). Organizational politics. In J. Barling, E. K. Kelloway, & M. R. Frone(Eds.), Handbook of work sress, 14, 353-374. SAGE Publications, Inc DOI:

Jonason, P. K., Li, N. P., Webster, G. W., & Schmitt, D. P. (2009). The dark triad: Facilitating short-term mating in men. European Journal of Personality, 23, 5-18. DOI:

Kacmar, K. M. & Baron, R. A. (1999). Organizational politics: The state of the field, links to related processes, and an agenda for future research. In K. M. Rowland & G. R. Ferris(Eds.), Research in personnel and human resources management, 10, 1-39. Greenwich: JAI Press Inc.

Kacmar, K. M. & Ferris, G. R. (1991). Perceptions of organizational politics scale (POPS): Development and construct validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51, 193-205. DOI:

Katz, D. & Kahn, R. L. (1996). The social psychology of organization. New York: WILEY

Kristof-Brown, A. L. & Stevens, C. K. (2001). Goal congruence in project teams: Does the fit between members’ personal mastery and performance goals matter? Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1083-1095. DOI:

Kristof-Brown, A. L., Jansen, K. L., & Colbert, A. E. (2002). A policy-capturing study of the simultaneous effects of fit with job, groups and organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), 985-993. DOI:

Kristof-Brown, A. L. (1996). Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurements, and implications. Personnel Psychology, 49, 1-49. DOI:

Miller, B. K., Rutherford, M. A., & Kolodinsky, R. W. (2008). Perceptions of organizational politics: A meta-analysis of Outcomes. Journal of Business Psychology, 22, 209-222. DOI:

Ntanos, A. (2009). Institutional approach of conflicts and the crisis management in the business environment. Archives of Economic History, 21(1), 103-134.

Parker, C, P., Dipboye, R, L, & Jackson, S, S. (1995). Perceptions of organizational Politis: An investigation of antecedents and consequences. Journal of Management. 21(5), 891-912. DOI:

Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. (2002). The dark triad of personality: Narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556-568. DOI:

Pervin, L. A. (1968). Performance and satisfaction as a function of individual-environment fit. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 56-68. DOI:

Pfeffer, J. (1981). Power in organization. Pitman Publishing.

Pierce, J. L., Gardner, D. G., Dunham, R. B., & Cummings, L. L. (1993). Moderation by organization-based self-esteem of role condition-employee response relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 271-287.

Porter, L. W. (1976). Organizations as political animals. Washington, DC.

Saks, A. M. & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between job information sources, applicant perceptions of fit, and work outcomes. Personnel Psychology, 50(2), 395-426. DOI:

Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437-453. DOI:

Schulte, M., Ostroff, C., & Kinicki, A. J. (2006). Organizational climate systems and psychological climate perceptions: A cross-level study of climate- satisfaction relationships. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79(4), 645-671. DOI:

Sheppard, B. H., Levicki, R. J., & Minton, J. W. (1992). Organizational justice: The search for fairness in the workplace. New York: Lexington Books.

Sykianakis, N. & Ballas, A. (2006). Ideology vs formal systems as a control mechanism: A case study. Presented in the 29th European accounting Association Congress, Dublin.

Treadwat, D. C., Ferris, G. R., Hochwarter, W., Perrewe, P., Witt. L. A., & Goodman, J. M. (2005). The role of age in the perceptions of politics-job performance relationship: A three-study constructive replication. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 872-881. DOI:

Valle, M & Perrewe, P. L. (2000). Do politics perceptions relate to political behaviors? Tests of an implicit assumption and expanded model. Human Relations, 53(3), 359-386. DOI:

Vancouver, J. B. & Schmitt, N. W. (1991). An exploratory examination of person-organization fit: Organizational goal congruence. Personnel Psychology, 44, 333-352. DOI:

Vancouver, J. B., Millsap, R. E., & Peters, P. A. (1994). Multilevel analysis of organizational goal congruence. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 666-497. DOI:

Vigoda, E. & Cohen, A. (2002). Influence tactics and perceptions of organizational politics: A longitudinal study. Journal of Business Research, 55(4), 311-324. DOI:

Vigoda, E. & Drory, A. (2002). Handbook of organizational politics. Edward ELgar Publishing.

Vigoda, E. (2000). Internal politics in public administration systems. Public Personnel Management, 29(2), 185-210. DOI:

Vigoda, E. (2002). Stress-related aftermaths to workplace politics: The relationships among politics, job distress, and aggressive behavior in organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 571-591. DOI:

Vigoda, E. (2003). Developments in organizational politics: How political dynamics affect employee performance in modern work sites. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Wilson, D. S., Near, D. and Miller, R. R. (1996). Machiavellianism: A synthesis of evolutionary and psychological literatures, Psychological Bulletin, 119, 285-299. DOI:

Yukl, G. & Tracey, J. B. (1992). Consequences of influence tactics used with subordinates, peers, and the boss. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(4), 525-535. DOI: