The effects of emotional labor(surface acting, deep acting) and job burnout on job satisfaction among securities branch clerks Moderated mediating effect of emotional intelligence

Main Article Content

SoonJeong Yang
DonHun Lee


The purpose of this study is to examine the moderated mediating effect of emotional intelligence on emotional labor(surface acting, deep acting) and job burnout on job satisfaction among securities branch clerks. A total of 288 securities clerks were asked to complete the questionnaires and the data were analyzed using SPSS 23.0 and Mplus 7.0. The results were as follows. First, surface acting had no significant effect on job satisfaction. Seocond, deep acting had significantly positive effect on job satisfaction. Third, surface acting were found to have significantly positive effect on job burnout. Fourth, deep acting were found to have significantly negative effect on job burnout. Fifth, job burnout is shown to have significantly negative effect on job satisfaction. Sixth, a mediating model showed that an association between surface acting and deep acting and job satisfaction were partially mediated by job burnout. Seventh, emotional intelligence showed the moderated mediating effect of deep acting and job burnout on job satisfaction. Finally, the implications and limitation of the present study are discussed.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Yang, S., & Lee, D. (2019). The effects of emotional labor(surface acting, deep acting) and job burnout on job satisfaction among securities branch clerks: Moderated mediating effect of emotional intelligence. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 32(3), 265–295.
Empirical Articles


Abraham, R. (1999). Emotional intelligence in organizations: A conceptualization. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 125(2), 209-224.

Adelman, P. K. (1995). Emotional labor as a potential source of job stress. In S. L. Sauter & L. R. Murphy (Eds.), Organizational risk factors for job stress. (pp. 371-381). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Ahn, D. H., & Park, Y. J. (2014). The effects of one`s beliefs about performance ability and burnout on police officers` job satisfaction. The Korean Journal of Human Resource Development, 16(1), 103-119.

Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. California, USA: Sage Publications.

Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotion labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.

Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1995). Emotion in the workplace: A reappraisal. Human Relations, 48(2), 97-125.

Baeck, S. K., Shin, K. H., & Heo, C. G. (2011). The role of emotional intelligence on emotional labor process: The mediated moderation of emotional intelligence. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 24(2), 429-454.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Brayfield, A. H., & Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35(5), 307-311.

Brewer, E. W., & Clippard, L. F. (2002). Burnout and job satisfaction among student support services personnel. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 13(2), 169-186.

Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandy, A. A. (2002). Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of people work, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60(1), 17-39.

Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 788-813.

Cheung, F. Y. L., & Tang, C. S. K. (2009). The influence of emotional intelligence and affectivity on emotional labor strategies at work. Journal of Individual Differences, 30(2), 75-86.

Cheung, F., Tang, C. S. K., & Tang, S. (2011). Psychological capital as a moderator between emotional labor, burnout, and job satisfaction among school teachers in China. International Journal of Stress Management, 18(4), 348-371.

Cho, H. J., & Park, H. J. (2012). The moderating effects of emotional intelligence on the relationships among early childhood teachers` emotional regulation strategies, job burnout and job stress. Journal of Future Early Childhood Education, 19(4), 231-248.

Cho, S. J., & Park, S. H. (2016). Emotional labor and depressive symptoms in bank clerks: The moderating role of emotional clarity. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35(3), 658-669.

Choi, J. W., & Kim, J. I. (2014). The effect of big 5 personality on emotional labor at bank customer encounter: Moderating effects of emotional intelligence, gender and job position. Journal of Marketing Studies, 22(4), 199-221.

Chung, B. Y., & Han, J. Y. (2014). Influential factors related to job satisfaction in hospice nurses: Focus on emotional labor and burnout. The Journal of Korean Nursing Administration Academic Society, 20(3), 322-331.

Ciarrochi, J., Deane, F. P., & Anderson, S. (2002). Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 197-209.

Coˆte´, S., & Miners, C. T. H. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 51(1), 1-28.

Copper, R., & Sawaf, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in business. London: Orion Business.

Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621-656.

Cordes, C. L., Dougherty, T. W., & Blum, M. (1997). Patterns of burnout among managers and professionals: A comparison of models. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(6), 685-701.<685::aid-job817>;2-l

Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16-29.

Elit, L., Trim, K., Mand-Bains, I. H., Sussman, J., & Grunfeld, E. (2004). Job satisfaction, stress, and burnout among Canadian gynecologic oncologists. Gynecologic Oncology, 94(1), 134-139. 04.014

Fisher, C. D., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2000). The emerging role of emotions in work life: An introduction. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 21(2), 123-129.<123::aid-job33>;2-#

For Occupational & Environment Health (2013). Survey on health status of emotional workers in private and public service industry.

Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burnout. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159-165.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotion regulation in the workplace: A new way to conceptualize emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110.

Grandey, A. A. (2003). When the show must going: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of Management. Journal, 46(1), 86-96.

Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R. W. (1997). Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106(1), 95-103.

Han, K. W., Choi, W. S., & Na, H. K. (2016). The effect of customer-related stress on an emotional labor: The moderating effect of emotional intelligence perceived by hotel employees. Tourism Research, 41(2), 193-218.

Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W. (2011). Organizational behavior (13th ed). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Heo, C. G., & Lee, K. A. (2015). Contribution of emotional labor to burnout and work engagement of school foodservice employees in Daegu and Gyeongbuk province. Journal of The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 44(4), 610-618.

Hochschild, A. R. (1979). Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85(3), 551-575.

Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feelings. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Hochschild, A. R. (2003). The commercialization of intimate life: Notes from home and work. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hsieh, C. W., Hsieh, J. Y., & Huang, I. Y. F. (2016). Self-efficacy as a mediator and moderator between emotional labor and job satisfaction: A case study of public service employees in Taiwan. Public Performance and Management Review, 40(1), 71-96.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.

Hülsheger, U. R., & Schewe, A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis spanning three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16(3), 361-389.

Hur, C. Y., & Kim, T. S. (2014). Effects of railroad tour conductors` emotional labor on emotional dissonance and job satisfaction: Mediating effect of emotional dissonance and moderating effect of commitment to emotional display rules. Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 21(3), 81-102.

Izard, C. E. (2009). Emotion theory and research: Highlights, unanswered questions, and emerging issues. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 1-25.

Jin, Y., & Song, K. C. (2012). Mediating role of job burnout and moderating role of social support in the relationships among job stressors, emotional labor, and job satisfaction. Korean Journal of Human Resources Development, 15(2), 1-36.

Jun, S. Y. (2015). A study on the influence of emotional labor on job satisfaction: Focusing on the moderating effect of perceived organizational support. Korea Journal of Business Administration, 28(12), 3235-3255.

Jung, H. K., Koo, B. H., & Han, H. S. (2016). Service employees burnout and its impact on job satisfaction, job performance and organizational citizenship behavior: A comparison between airline crews and hotel employees. Korean Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 25(4), 77-94.

Kang, M. Y., Han, N. Y., & Bae, S. W. (2017). A study on the effects of emotional labor on counterproductive work behavior via burnout. Management Information Systems Review, 36(1), 275-293. 36.1.016

Kim, H. J. (2013). The moderating effect of emotional intelligence in the relationship between emotional dissonance and customer orientation of call center consultants. The Journal of Vocational Education Research, 32(5), 115-129.

Kim, H. J. (2014). A study on the emotional labor & job satisfaction of major supermarket sales clerk: By having social support as moderating variable. The Journal of Labor Studies, 28, 167-207.

Kim, H. O., Cho, B. S., & Lee, M. J. (2017). The effects of pay for performance systems on employee job satisfaction: The moderating role of pay dispersion. Journal of Organization and Management, 41(3), 61-91.

Kim, I. A. (2013). Emotional Labor Management and Policy Suggestions in Korea. Proceedings of Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 11, 467-485.

Kim, J. S., & Han, S. H. (2017). Exploring a mediating role of job burnout: A study of the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction in Korean street-level bureaucrats. Korean Review of Organizational Studies, 13(4), 71-100. 71

Kim, K. E., & Cho, S. D. (2013). Effects of service employees’ goal and customer orientation on emotional labor and job satisfaction. Journal of Marketing Studies, 21(1), 1-21.

Kim, K. S. (2005). Organizational behavior. Seoul: Beobmusa.

Kim, M. J. (2014). The effects of emotional intelligence and emotional labor on burnout, job satisfaction and prosocial service behaviors. (Soongsil University). Retrieved from

Kim, M. J. (2017). A study on the re-conceptualization of emotional labor. The Korean Society of Management Consulting, 17(2), 73-87.

Kim, S. J., & Hong, C. H. (2014). The banker to engage in emotional labor’s stresses and burnout. The Korean Journal of Stress Research, 22(2), 97-107.

Kim, S. Y. (2016). Fundamentals and extensions of structural equation modeling. Hakjisa Publisher, Inc.

Kim, S. Y., Chang, S. J., Kim, H. R., & Roh, J. H. (2002). A study on the relationship between emotional labor and depressive symptoms among Korean industrial service employees. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 14(3), 227-235.

Kim, Y. J., & Han, J. H. (2008). Two types of emotional labor their impacts on job burnout of service workers. Journal of Organization and Management, 32(3), 95-128.

Ko, J. S., & Hwang, J. S. (2010). The effects on the job satisfaction and the organizational involvement by the job burnout: Hypothesis testing on the effects of the modification variable. Journal of Industrial Economics and Business, 23(1), 523-545.

Kwon, M. K., & Yoon, S. Y. (2011). A study on the influence of emotional labor and social support on airline call center agent burnout. The Journal of Korea Navigation Institute, 15(5), 808-822.

Lee, A. L. (2017). A study on job related variables and job satisfaction affecting burnout of caregivers. The Review of Eurasian Studies, 14(2), 103-132.

Lee, H. K., & Chung, J. Y. (2014). Study of job stress, burnout, and compassion satisfaction of occupational therapists in rehabilitation hospitals. Journal of Special Education & Rehabilitation Science, 53(3), 177-192.

Lee, H. S., Yoo, Y. J., & Kim, I. J. (2014). The moderating effect on the relationship between emotional labor and, emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Journal of the Aviation Management Society of Korea, 12(2), 89-104.

Lee, I. S., Park, M. S., & Jeong, M. G. (2007). A study on the effect of job burnout–based on the professions working in financial companies. Korea Journal of Business Administration, 20(6), 2879-2900.

Lee, J. S., & Seo, Y. S. (2014). The relation between employees` job burnout and job satisfaction: Moderating effects of meaning of work and working environments. Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 26(4), 1109-1129.

Lee, J., & Ok, C. (2012). Reducing burnout and enhancing job satisfaction: Critical role of hotel employees’ emotional intelligence and emotional labor. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1101-1112.

Lee, N. H., & Kim, J. U. (2014). The influences of emotional labor and emotional intelligence on call center tele-communicators` job burnout. The Journal of Vocational Education Research, 33(2), 103-120.

Lee, S. H., & Bang, Y. S. (2015). The effect of emotional labor and burnout on the job attitude of occupational therapists. Korean Journal of Occupational Therapy, 23(1), 95-108.

Lee, Y. R., & Hong, S. H. (2010). An effect of the emotional labor on the burnout and the job satisfaction of the hotel employees. Korea Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 25(1), 185-203.

Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (pp. 1297-1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.

Maslach, C. (1982). Burn-out: The cost of caring. Englewood Cliffs, NY: Prentice-Hall.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S. E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2(2), 99-113.

Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397-422.

Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54(3-4), 772-781.

Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 986-1010.

Muthén, L., & Muthén, B. (1998-2017). Mplus: Statistical analysis with latent variables user's guide 7.0. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Park, D. S., Jeon, M. K., & Jeong, S. H. (2005). A conceptualization and antecedents of emotional labor. Journal of Organization and Management, 29(4), 133-167.

Park, J. M., Park, D. S., Lee, J. K., & Ann, S. L. (2014). An empirical study on the relationship between emotional labor strategies and turnover intention: The mediating role of job burnout and the moderating role of job performance. Korean Management Consulting Review, 14(4), 173-186.

Park, S. H. (2015). Analysis of emotional labor occupational characteristics and policy implications using KNOW. Korea Employment Information Service.

Pines, A. M., & Keinan, G. (2005). Stress and burnout: The significant difference. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(3), 625-635.

Prati, L. M., & Karriker, J. H. (2010). Emotional intelligence skills: The building blocks of defence against emotional labour burnout. International Journal of Work Organisation and Emotion, 3(4), 317-335. ijwoe.2010.035322

Prati, L. M., Liu, Y., Perrewé, P. L., & Ferris, G. R. (2009). Emotional intelligence as moderator of the surface acting: Strain relationship. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 15(4), 368-380. 1808328518

Preacher, K. J., Rucker, D. D., & Hayes, A. F. (2007). Addressing moderated mediation hypothesis: Theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 42(1), 185-227.

Pugliesi, K. (1999). The consequences of emotional labor: Effects of work stress, job statisfaction, and well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 23(2), 125-154.

Putnam, L., & Mumby, D. K. (1993). Organizations, emotion and the myth of rationality. In S. Fineman (Ed.), Emotion in organizations. (pp. 36-57). London: Sage.

Rafaeli, A., & Sutton, R. I. (1987). Expression of emotion as part of the work role. Academy of Management, 12(1), 23-37.

Roh, H. M., Yoo, T. Y., & Shin, K. H. (2007). The effect of emotional intelligence and emotional labor strategy on job-related attitudes: The mediating effect of personal accomplishment. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 20(4), 529-550.

Sager, J. k. (1994). A structural model depicting salespeople's job stress. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 22(1), 74-84.

Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9(3), 185-211.

Schaufeli, W., & Enzmann, D. (1998). The burnout companion to study and practice: A critical analysis. CRC press.

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L. E., Haggerty, D. J., Cooper, J. T., Golden, C. J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 167-177.

Seery, B. L., & Corrigall, E. A. (2009). Emotional labor: Links to work attitudes and emotional exhaustion. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(8), 797-813.

Shim, J. S., & Jeong, S. E. (2013). The effects of emotional labor and job burnout on customer orientation. The Journal of Business Education, 27(2), 69-89.

Shin, H. R., & Mo, J. H. (2017). The control role of social support in the effects of emotional labor in esthetician on occupational burnout and satisfaction. Journal of The Korean Society of Design Culture, 23(2), 349-358.

Shin, K. H., Hahn, Y. S., Kim, W. S., & Kim, W. H. (2008). Emotional labor and job burnout and job engagement: The moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 21(3), 475-491.

Sliter, M., Jex, S., Wolford, K., & McInnerney, J. (2010). How rude! Emotional labor as a mediator between customer incivility and employee outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(4), 468-481.

Smith, H. C. (1955). Psychology of industrial behavior. New York: McGrow-Hill Book Co. 114-115.

Sohn, H. K., & Sohn, D. H. (2009). The relationship between emotional variable, burnout and job satisfaction in the job performance of hotel employee`s. Journal of Tourism Sciences, 33(4), 273-295.

Steinberg, R. J., & Figart, D. M. (1999). Emotional labor since the managed heart. In R. J. Steinberg & D. M. Figart (Eds.), The annals of the American academy of political and social science. (pp. 8-26). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Tiffin, J., & McCormick, E. J. (1974). Industrial psychology. New Jersry: Prentice-Hall.

Totterdell, P., & Holman, D. (2003). Emotion regulation in customer service roles: Testing a model of emotional labor. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8(1), 55-73.

Wharton, A. S. (1993). The affective consequences of service work: Managing emotions on the job. Work and Occupations, 20(2), 205-232.

Wong, C. S., & Law, K. S. (2002). The effects of leader and follower emotional intelligence on performance and attitude: An exploratory study. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(3), 243-274.

Wright, T. A., & Bonett, D. G. (1997). The contribution of burnout to work performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(5), 491-499.<491::aid-job804>;2-i

Wright, T. A., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2004). Commitment, psychological well-being and job performance: An examination of conservation of resources (COR) theory and job burnout. Journal of Business and Management, 9(4), 389-406.

Yang, F. H., & Chang, C. C. (2008). Emotional labour, job satisfaction and organizational commitment amongst clinical nurses: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45(6), 879-887.

Yi, R., Kim, W. S., & Shin, K. H. (2006). The role of emotional labor strategies in the job demand-resource model with burnout and engagement: Call center employees case. Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 19(4), 573-596.

Yoo, M. N., & Shin, N. R. (2013). Childcare teachers` work-related burnout, job satisfaction, and social supports in the workplace. Journal of Life-span Studies, 3(2), 73-85.

Yook, P. R., & Cho, T. Y. (2012). Influence of the emotional labor of the casino personnel on their job exhaustion and job satisfaction: With focus on three casino businesses located at three different areas. Korea Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 26(3), 233-250.

Zapf, D., Sfifert, C., Schmutte, B., Mertini, H., & Holz, M. (2001). Emotion, work and job stressors and their effects on burnout. Psychology and Health, 16(5), 527-545.