Development and validation of the Spiritual Management Index (SMI)

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JungAh Lee
YoungWon Suh


Recently, organization is facing globalization, change, complexity, uncertainty. Also, new social-economic values such as conscious capitalism, sustainable management, stakeholder theory come into the spotlight. These changes in management include a shift from an economic focus to a balance of profits, quality of life, spirituality, and social responsibility concerns. And one of the greatest challenges facing organization is the need to develop new business models that accentuate ethical leadership, employee well-being, substantiality, and social responsibility without sacrificing profitability, revenue growth. This research suggest ‘spiritual management’ to deal with these changes. Spiritual management will enhances employee well-being, quality of life and provides employees a sense of purpose and meaning at work, a sense of interconnectedness and community. Nevertheless researches in this area are not enough and still inadequate level. In addition, there is no framework, well-defined concept and scientific diagnosis tool of spiritual management. Therefore we developed the Spiritual Management Iindex(SMI). To develop the scale we conducted researched on documentations and attended at spiritual management forum. Based on these research we developed 7 initial factors with 50items. Using these items we conducted survey, with the 261 people's survey results, we implemented the factor analysis. After validating we generated final 7 factor with 40 items. Also we conducted criterion-related validation. Spiritual management influence on happiness, organizational commitment, job engagement of employees.


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Lee, J., & Suh, Y. (2016). Development and validation of the Spiritual Management Index (SMI). Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 29(3), 433–463.
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