김광호, 김종복 (2014). MARS WAY: 이와우.
김혜경 (2015). 영성 경영 포럼, 윤리경영학회.
노상충, 서용원 (2014). 일터영성 5요인 모형의 개 념화 및 척도개발 연구, 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(2), 419-447.
노상충 (2014). 영성이 있는 일터. 당근 농장 이야기: 끌리는 책.
노상충 (2015). 영성 경영 포럼, 윤리경영학회.
박경원 (2013). 성과관리와 분권화 수준에 따른 성과 측정지표의 활용이 조직성과에 미치는 영향, 한국국제회계학회, 51, 105-126.
박재호 (1988). 1990년대를 대비한 중소기업 조직개발에 관한 연구, 한국심리학회지, 1(1), 13-43.
류랑도 (2012). 우리가 꿈꾸는 회사, 마이다스 아이티, 세계 1등 기업의 비밀: 쌤앤 파커스.
서용원 (2002). 공정성 지각과 리더 행동간의 관계: 분배공정 리더십과 절차공정 리더십의 차별효과, 한국심리학회지, 15(3), 113-132.
서용원 (2015). Spiritual Leadership and Spiritual Management, 한국산업및조직심리학회, 춘계 학술대회, 149-161.
서은국, 구재선 (2011). 단축형 행복 척도(COMOSWB) 개발 및 타당화, 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 25(1), 95-113.
신유근 (2001). 인간존중의 경영: 다산.
알렉스 조 (2016). 융합 시대의 산업 혁신 전략, 한국경제.
오화석 (2013). 100년 기업의 힘 타타에게 배워라: 매일 경제 신문사.
유규창, 서재현, 김종인 (2010). Workplace spirituality의 개념적 정의와 모델. 인사․조직연구, 18(4), 153-199.
유규창, 김하나, 김정은, 이혜정 (2012). 영성 리더십이 구성원의 소명의식을 통해 조직몰입에 미치는 영향. 조직과 인사관리 연구, 36(2), 1-31.
이정아, 서용원 (2014). 영성 리더십이 부하의 일터영성을 통해 직무열의 및 이직의도에 미치는 효과, 대한리더십학회: 리더십 연구, 6(1), 5-40.
조성호 (2015). 영성 경영 포럼, 윤리경영학회.
최준원, 이병주 (2014). 진정성 리더십이 심리적 계약에 미치는 영향: 절차 공정성과 상사신뢰의 매개효과. 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 27(1), 21-54.
최창명, 김성수 (2005). 윤리경영의 운영과 리더에 대한 신뢰가 조직몰입에 미치는 영향, 기업경영 연구, 12(2), 89-119.
허갑수, 변상우 (2006). 윤리경영과 조직시민행동과의 관계에 있어서 신뢰의 역할, 인적 자원관리 연구, 13(1), 85-101.
Bock L. (2015). 구글의 아침은 자유가 시작된다: RHK.
Chouinard Y., & Stanley V. (2013). 리스판서블 컴퍼니 파타고니아: 틔움.
Dawlabani S. (2013). 21세기 경제 시스템, 밈노믹스: 엘도라도.
Korschun, D., & Welker, G. (2016). WE ARE MARKET BASKET: 가나 출판사.
Mackey J., & Sisodia R. (2014). 깨어있는 자본주의에서 답을 찾다: 흐름출판.
Schmidt, E., & Rosenberg. J (2014). 구글은 어떻게 일하는가: 김영사.
Abernethy, M. A., Bouwens, J., & Laurence, L. (2004). Determinants of Control System Design in Divisionalized Firms. The Accounting Review, 79(3), 545-570.
Allen. N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.
Ashmos, D. P., & Duchon, D. (2000). Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry. 9(2), 134-145.
Beaurengard, T., & Henry, L. (2009). Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance. Human Resource Management Review, 19, 9-22.
Burack, E. (1999). Spirituality in the workplace. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 280-291.
Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C. L. (1997). Managing Workplace Stress. Sage Publications.
Cohen, D., & Prusak, I. (2001). In Good Company: How social Capital Makes Organizations Work. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Cole, M. S., & Brunch, H. (2009). Organizational identity, strength, identification and commitment and their relationships to turnover intention: Dose organizational hierarchy matter?. Journal of organizational Behavior, 27, 585-605.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2009). Organization Development & Change, 9th Ed. OH: South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning.
DeFoore, B., & Renesch, I. (1995). Rediscovering the soul of business. San Francisco: New Leaders Press.
DowJones Sustainability Index(DJSI), (2004). Annual Review.
Duchon. D. P., & Plowman, D. A. (2005). Nurturing the sprit at work: Impact on work unit performance, The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 807-833.
Erez, A., & Isen, A. M. (2002). The influence of positive affect on the components of expectancy motivation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1055-1067.
Fairholm, G. W. (1996). Spiritual leadership: Fulfilling whole-self need at work. Leadership and Organization Development Journal. 17(5), 11-17.
Friedman, S. D., Christensen, P., & DeGroot, J. (1989), “Work and Life: The End of the Zero-sum Game”, Harvard Business Review, Nov-Dec: 119-129.
Fry, L. W. (2011). Impact of spiritual leadership on unit performance, The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 655-687.
Fry, L. W., & Slocum, J. W. (2007). Maximizing the Triple Bottom Line through Spiritual Leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 37(1), 86-96.
Galinsky, E., Friedman, D. E., & Hernandez, C. A. (1991). The corporate reference guide to work-family programs. Families and Work Institute.
Gottlieb, B. H., Kelloway, E. K., & Barham. E. (1988). Flexible work arrangements: Managing the work-family boundary. Chicherster, UK: Wiley.
Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., & Shaw, J. D. (2003). The relation between work-family balance and quality of life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), 510-531.
Harrison, D. A., Newman, D. A., & Roth, P. L (2006). How important are job attitudes? Meta-analytic comparisons of integrative behavioral outcomes and time sequences. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 305-325.
John, M. I., & Michael, T. M. (1987). Organizational Behavior and Management. Plano, Texas Business Publication Inc., TX.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692-724.
Karakas, F. (2009). New Paradigms in Organization Development: Positivity, Spirituality, and Complexity. Organization Development Journal, 27, 11-26.
Karakas, F. (2010). Spirituality and performance in organization: a literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 94(1), 89-106.
Konrad, A., Steurer, R., Langer, M., & Martinuzzi, A. (2006). Empirical Findings on Business- Society Relations in Europe. Journal of Business Ethics, 63, 57-67.
Konz, G., & Ryan, F. (1999). Maintaining an organizational spirituality: No easy task. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(3), 200-210.
Lawler, E. E. (1986). High-involvement management: Participative strategies for improving organizational performance. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Lee J. K., Damian J. S., & Michael L. T. (2000). Defining and Measuring Empowering Leader Behaviors: Development of an Upward Feedback Instrument. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60: 301.
Levering, R. (1998). A Great Place to Work: What makes some employers so good (and most so bad). New York: Random House.
Liden, R. C., & Tewsbury, T. W. (1995). Empowerment and work teams. In Reffis, G. R., Rossen, S. D., & Barnum. D. T. (Eds.), Handbook of Human Resource Management, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, Mass., 386- 403.
Lyumomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: does happiness lead to success?, Psychological Bulletin, 131, 803-855.
Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. Jr. (1987). Leading workers to lead themselves: The external leadership of self-managed work teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 32, 106-128.
Maslach, C., Schaufelli, W . B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout, Annual Review Psychology, 52, 397-422.
Milliman, J,. Czaplewski, A. J., & Ferguson, J. (2003). Workplace spirituality and employee work attitudes: An exploratory empirical assessment. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 16(4), 426-447.
Mitroff, I. I., & Mitroff. D. (2006). Consciousness: All of Us Are Spiritual Beings. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 1(1), 21.
Morgeson, F. P., & Humphrey, S. E. (2006). The work design questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1321-1339.
Page, D. (2000). Finding meaning through servant leadership in the workplace, Biannual International Conference on Personal Meaning, Vancouver, July 18-21.
Porter M. E., &, Kramer M. R. (2011), Creating shared value, Harvard Business Review, 89(1), 62-77.
Price, J. L., & Mueller, C. W. (1986). Absenteeism and turnover of hospital employees. Greenwich. CT: JAI Press.
Rathi, N. (2011). Psychological well-being and organizational commitment: Exploration of the relationship. working paper, Amrita Vishwa vidyapeetham University.
Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly. 16(5), 655-687.
Robbins, S. P. (1983). Organization theory: The Structure and Design of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-Hall, Nj.
Savitz A. W., & Weber, K. (2006), The triple bottom line: how today’s best-run companies are achieving economic, social, and environmental success-and how you can too. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 25, 293-315.
Schellenbarger, S. (2000). More Relaxed Boomers, Fewer Workplace Frills and Other Job Trends. Wall Street Journal, December 27, B-1.
Simkin, C., & Hillage, J. (1992). Family-friendly working: New hope or old hope. Institute for Manpower Studies, Brighton.
Statman, M. (2005). Socially Responsible Indexs: Composition and Performance. Working paper.
Stone. A. G., Russell, F. R., & Patterson, K. (2004). Transformational versus servant leadership: A difference in leadership focus. The Leadership and Organizational Development Journal 25(4): 349-361.
Tannenbaum, S. (1997). Enhancing continuous learning: Diagnostic findings from multiple companies. Human Resource Management, 36, 437-452.
Valii, P. (1988). Spiritual leading and learning. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
Wall, T. D., Jackson, P. R., & Davids, K. (1992). Operator work design and robotics system performance: A serendipitous field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 353-362.
Wall, T. D., Jackson, P. R., & Mullarkey, S. (1995). Further evidence on some new measures of job control, cognitive demand and production responsibility. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 431-455.
Walsh, J. P., Weber, K., Margolis, J. D. (2003). Social Issues and Management: Our Lost Cause Found. University of Michigan Business School.
Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic Leadership: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89-126.
Watkins, K. E., & Marsick, V. J. (1993). Sculpting the learning organization: Lesson in the art and science of systemic change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wong, P. T., & Davey, D. (2007). Best Practices in Servant Leadership. Servant Leadership Research Roundtable.
Zheung. C. (2016). Impact of individual coping strategies and organizational work–life balance programmes on Australian employee well-being, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(5), 501-526.
- Abstract viewed - 90 times
- PDF downloaded - 60 times
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
© Korean Journal for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2016
How to Cite
Development and validation of the Spiritual Management Index(SMI)
Vol 29 No 3 (2016): Korean Journal of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Submitted: May 30, 2019
Published: Aug 31, 2016
Recently, organization is facing globalization, change, complexity, uncertainty. Also, new social-economic values such as conscious capitalism, sustainable management, stakeholder theory come into the spotlight. These changes in management include a shift from an economic focus to a balance of profits, quality of life, spirituality, and social responsibility concerns. And one of the greatest challenges facing organization is the need to develop new business models that accentuate ethical leadership, employee well-being, substantiality, and social responsibility without sacrificing profitability, revenue growth. This research suggest ‘spiritual management’ to deal with these changes. Spiritual management will enhances employee well-being, quality of life and provides employees a sense of purpose and meaning at work, a sense of interconnectedness and community. Nevertheless researches in this area are not enough and still inadequate level. In addition, there is no framework, well-defined concept and scientific diagnosis tool of spiritual management. Therefore we developed the Spiritual Management Iindex(SMI). To develop the scale we conducted researched on documentations and attended at spiritual management forum. Based on these research we developed 7 initial factors with 50items. Using these items we conducted survey, with the 261 people's survey results, we implemented the factor analysis. After validating we generated final 7 factor with 40 items. Also we conducted criterion-related validation. Spiritual management influence on happiness, organizational commitment, job engagement of employees.